Line Following Robot by Using Camera

I’m an electrical engineering student and it’s a project which has been done before. Our aim to replace Z80 and modernise a line following robot.

The line following robot has 4 digital sensors and a camera. Camera detects the center of the line while the robot is moving). An Z80 microprocessor is used in this project and i am asked to modernise the microprocessor(Z80) and the other sensors ( only if necessary ).

I dig about the Arduino, Raspberry Pi and other programming platforms in order to replace with Z80. Arduino is the best choice for sensor controls but what about the camera ? Would it be powerful enough to run it ? I know even Arduino Mega won’t be enough ( based on here : I am thinking about using Intel Galileo since programming language is still Arduino ( which is quite easy and understandable) and has power hardware specifications but i couldn’t find any project such as "Galileo Line following robot by using camera ". I am confused a bit if it is not suitable to do this operation or there are other cheaper and easier models to do this replacements.

The type of the camera is CMUcam with 80x143 pixels resolution. The main idea is to check the if the center of gravity of the line is somewhere in the 3rd area named as “3. bölge”

This is a 4 months project which will be going on so i want to make this choice perfectly not to have any future problems.

Thanks in advance.

Image processing requires much memory and runtime, which are available only with bigger processors (16/32 bit). Such processors are typically used with an operating system and interpreted code, what again slows down everything. Even then I suspect that your robot will move more like a snail than a racing car. I'd stay with the ordinary (infrared?) sensors.