Linux install without GUI

All of my development is command-line, and I'm quite confused how to install the IDE via the commandline on a CentOS machine. The make instructions are vague at best (I can't even find the makefile).

And to make matters even more confusing, the command-line installation instructions are also confusing ("make install" certainly doesn't work).

Can someone please help?

I hope CentOS is a Fedora like linux distribution. Did you try sudo yum install arduino.?
Or try Arduino Playground - Fedora

Good thought, no luck... The package isn't available on yum apparently.

Do you want to install the IDE? You need to install a java runtime. Then download the IDE package from the Arduino site. Unzip in your home directory and run from there (the arduino script in the Arduino dir). You will have to sort out group memberships and permissions in order to access the ports, see this page for some instructions. Arduino Playground - Linux

Good luck