measure distance, high precision, short distance

example: I have a sensor mount to a metal frame. on the opposite side is a fixed metal wall. The distance between them can be between 1cm and 5cm (what you guys think will be best for my results I'll pick).
Now if I touch the frame the distance between the frame/sensor and the metal wall become shorter.

I need to know the difference in distance preferably on a 0.01mm range or higher if possible. Also, I want the refresh rate of the feedback to be very high. Every millisecond a new value between start and stop of the touch would be great or Higher if that's possible.

What sensor should I be using? I prefer cheap, but if that does not exist I'm open to more expensive models.

EIT: Pololu Carrier with Sharp GP2Y0D805Z0F Digital Distance Sensor 5cm Could this do? it says it doesn't show distance

All sensors that are worth having are adjustable by the end user. There is usually a potentiometer that can be used to adjust the sensitivity from low to high. As for the precision that you are wanting, you would probably need something using a laser and receiver, but, I doubt you will find a device that can reliably read the levels you want without physical contact with the surface without spending thousands of dollars. The typical over the counter sensors are not even close to those scales. The most common cheap laser range device runs about $100 to $150 and the reported range is :: 0.5 ... 9 m
•Resolution :: Adjustable
•Update rate :: Adjustable: 3 ... 50 readings per second
•Accuracy :: Adjustable
•Power supply voltage :: 12 V (10 … 16 V)
•Power supply current :: 50 mA
•Outputs & interfaces :: Timing & laser signal outputs
•Dimensions :: 27 x 56 x 65 mm
•Weight :: 57 g
•Mounting :: 4 x M3 (3.2 mm diameter)
•Connections :: 0.1 in. pitch header
•Optical aperture :: 53 mm
•Laser power :: 14 W (peak), 6 mW (average), Class 1M
•Operating temperature :: - 20°C ... + 60°C

So, that is where you might start, but it is all up to the end user to fine tune the device, and the code to produce acurate information. As you can see the read rate is only 3 to 50 time per second, no where near the one thousand times a second you are seeking. Also, the mounting will have a lot to do with the degree of acuracy you are going to expect. If the laser is on a swivel, as most I have seen are, the readings you take will be variable based on the tolerances of your swivel mount. Again, standard servos are certainly not going to get you the type of control and precision you are seeking. You will likely need to use highend Stepper motors that are further refined through either the use of gearing or threading to convert the 1.8 degree control of a stepper to something more like .0001 degree of rotation.

For your concerns, you may want to seek out an electronics engineer and find out about custom hardware providers that can produce what you are after.

No consumer sensor I’m aware of provides a resolution (not even thinking about accuracy) of 10µm.

Industrial laser micrometer sensors might fulfill your requirements but they are outside my budget.

kingofwoods:
Pololu Carrier with Sharp GP2Y0D805Z0F Digital Distance Sensor 5cm Could this do? it says it doesn't show distance

No.

Google linear displacement sensor

There are a number of different types of linear displacement sensors (non-contact eddy current or capacitive, contact LVDT...) that may work depending on details you haven't shared. At 0.01mm resolution or better, none of them will be cheap.

As stated no reasonably priced sensor will give you that kind of accuracy.

The sensor you posted is a proximity sensor.

You can get away with Pololu - Sharp GP2Y0A51SK0F Analog Distance Sensor 2-15cm

but likely every time you turn it off and on again it will give different distances

Get an idea of the cost of what you're asking for - analog laser sensor. And these don't even meet your distance specs.

These might be closer.

My digital calipers offer a 0.01 mm resolution. Not expensive, but of course it has to make physical contact.

As such a simple consumer tool can do 0.01 mm, I'm sure a higher resolution will be readily available (at a price). I think it's encoder based, it will zero when switched on at whatever point it actually is.

OK thanks for the advice guys. Back to the drawing boards I guess. I needed to know the accel or speed and I figured messuring distance over a time would give me just that.

kingofwoods:
OK thanks for the advice guys. Back to the drawing boards I guess. I needed to know the accel or speed and I figured messuring distance over a time would give me just that.

If the issue is about modal analisys you can start by measuring accelerations ...

Regards.

vffgaston:
If the issue is about modal analisys you can start by measuring accelerations ...

Regards.

How does one do that? I'm sorry. I'm not very familiar into the arduino world. It's a bit play and practice atm.

Look for accelerometers. They're quite cheap and can be attached to the moving part, measuring its instantaneous acceleration.

Now as I don't really understand the scope of your project (both the physical layout as what you're trying to do and measure with it) I have no idea whether those would be suitable for you.

kingofwoods:
How does one do that? I'm sorry. I'm not very familiar into the arduino world. It's a bit play and practice atm.

There are many threads about FFT, although almost all of them in the audio field.

Is yours a project for civil structures?

Regards.

Even the absurdly cheap digital calipers from your local discount tool house will have a digital output that the Arduino can read. Not all of them and I don't have a reference for what to look for. I'm sure Google can find you a few hints for the ones that are amenable to hacking.

For that size and precision requirement, you really need something like the digital caliper. For smaller size there may be capacative or proximity sensors which will work.

wvmarle:
Look for accelerometers. They're quite cheap and can be attached to the moving part, measuring its instantaneous acceleration.

Now as I don't really understand the scope of your project (both the physical layout as what you're trying to do and measure with it) I have no idea whether those would be suitable for you.

vffgaston:
There are many threads about FFT, although almost all of them in the audio field.

Is yours a project for civil structures?

Regards.

I was thinking about making something like this: https://powerkube.net/

The only difference I want to implement is that my box would hang on an moving punchbag, so do you need the weight of the punchbag to make correct calculations?

Oh my. Talking about moving the goalposts. What does this have to do with your original request of 0.01mm displacement? Hitting a punchbag will make it move in all kinds of ways. Sounds like you made it into an XY problem.

So please tell us what is it what you actually want to measure? (so not how you think you can measure it).