Measure distance traveled by arduino car

Hi all, I'm new working with arduino. I have a arduino car and would like to add a sensor to measure the distance that traveled in all directions (up, right, left, down). What sensor do you recomend to do it?

Wheel encoders are popular.

or measuring tape.

Or altimeter for up and down.

GPS is another option. Works in 3D.

Way too easy.

Way too easy.

What is too easy, my GPS solution? Don’t think so.

OP forgot to mention whether it’s indoor or outdoor, what the expected range of movement is, required resolution of that movement, etc.