Mechanical limits

Hello,

I’m new to the Arduino Uno and I was wondering a couple of things about the system that were not covered in the Specs or the FAQs.
First, what is the minimum operating temperature for the Arduino Uno?
Second, what is the frequency range for the pwm outputs?
Finally, is there anyway to vary the voltage running through the pwms?

Thanks for any help you can provide. I’m sorry if this is in the wrong topic.

Minimum temperature is the highest minimum operating temperature of the components on the board. Usually around 230K. PWMs usually run at about 490Hz.

to answer the last part of your question, the PWM outputs are just regular 0 or 5V outputs switched on and off, so you can decrease the voltage using two resistors in series as a potential divider, or use them to switch a higher voltage using a transistor.

Minimum temperature is the highest minimum operating temperature of the components on the board. Usually around 230K.

eh? Most vendors specify C instead of K.

Most ICs are rated in 3 classes: commercial, industrial, automotive. The actual range varies by manufacturer, but some typical ranges are:

commercial is usually 0C - 80C (upper limit varies a bit).

Industrial is around -40C - 80C.

Automotive is -40C - 120C.

I suspect most components on the arduino are commercial temperature range devices.

-j

eh? Most vendors specify C instead of K

Lots of vendors (those in SI-deficient countries) specify in degrees F, so I work in K, to avoid any mishaps.

eh? Most vendors specify C instead of K

Lots of vendors (those in SI-deficient countries) specify in degrees F, so I work in K, to avoid any mishaps. (I also work in K because it makes the gas laws easier to work with, but that's another hobby)

I didn't have any references but I thought something like an arduino will be commercial range but you said 230K. I guess if someone pushes towards this limit, they need to have industrial parts for the rest of their project. Not sure about the different thermal expansion between the solder and the copper, and copper and fiber board though. Any idea if that becomes an issue at 230K?