What units are in microcontrollers and what are the tasks of all units?. I tried to find an English language source but I did not find a suitable source because I do not know English very well. Do you know a website that this topic on this in detail?

The microcontroller data sheet will have that information.

The data sheet is too shallow and superficial. I need detailed explanation.

Then we need a detailed question. Which microcontroller? Which "units"? What, exactly, do you want to know?

The data sheet is too shallow and superficial.

Really? Post a link to one.

It's not the data sheet I want. Different topics are explained on the data page. It is difficult to read and explain in English, because I do not have good knowledge of English. In fact, the data page is very detailed and I need to have good English knowledge to be able to read it. The question I'm looking for answers is: All units in the microcontroller and what they do. I believe that me will understand well with the presence of the texts and the simple English and visuals.
For example: How does a hard drive work? - Explain that Stuff

You could try some of the documents in the left hand column here

You could try my book, we tried to explain things in terms that a high school student who was moving from some programming experience into embedded projects could understand

What units are in microcontrollers and what are the tasks of all units?.

I guess that the term units point to various hardware modules (like Digital Port, Analog Port, Timer/Counter and etc.) of a typical microcontroller. In that case, the following materials may be helpful for you.

1. The attached file that briefly describes the architecture of 8051 Microcontroller.

2. This Post This Post gives a summary of various hardware modules that are present wihin ATmega32A/ATmega328P Microcontroller.

3. Atmel’s Official Block Diagram for the Internal Hardware Resources of ATmega328P

Figure-1: Atmel’s official block diagram for ATmega328P MCU

Internal Hardware Resources of ATmega328P

(a) 8-Bit AVR Microcontroller

(b) 32 Registers (Register File): Address (0000h – 0001Fh)

(c) 64 IO Space: Address (0020h – 005Fh)

(d) 160 Extended IO Space: Address (0060h – 00FFh)

(e) User RAM (1792 Bytes : Address (0100h – 07FFh)

(f) Stack Space (User defined, 256 Bytes)) : Address (0800h – 08FFh)

(g) Code Memory (Flash) : 16 K word (16x1024 locations of 16-bit size) with security bit. Address space: 0000h – 3FFFh (0x0000 – 0x3FFF = $0000 - $3FFF).

(h) EEPROM Data Memory: 1K Byte (1x1024 locations of 8-bit size) with security bit. Address space: 0000h – 03FFh.

(i) Internal clock oscillator and dividers.

(j) General Purpose IO Lines: 20 (PB0 – PB5, PC0-PC5, PD0-PD7)

(k) 3 Timers: 8-bit x 2 and 16-bit x 1

(l) 2 External Interrupts: INT0 and INT1

(m) 6 Channel 10-Bit Analog-to-Digital Converter: Ch0 – Ch5.

(n) 6 Channel Pulse Width Modulators (PWM).

(o) In System programming Interface (ISP): To fuse code/data inside he ATmega32 without the need of expensive commercial ROM Programmer.

(p) Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI): To communicate among the compatible devices using local high speed serial communication links.

(q) Two Wire Interface (TWI): To communicate among compatible devices on serial link.

(r) USART (Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Reception and Transmission Interface) Port.

(s) Internal Fuse Bits (for the operational configuration of the Atmega328). Once the fuse bits are set to a certain value with the help of Parallel ROM Programmer, they are not erased when the chip is erased.

4. The following diagram contains (in block forms) various hardware modules of ATmega328 Microcontroller. You may slowly consult data sheets to understand the functions of these hardware blocks. You may also keep eyes at the ‘Education and Teaching’ Section of the Forum for some possible post describing the functions of these modules!

Figure-2: Compiled block diagram for ATme328P MCU at conceptual level

ch8(P451-P506)final.pdf (741 KB)

The answer I wanted was something like that.

Most datasheets will contain a "block diagram" and a "summary of features" page/chapter. Atmel also has "summary" datasheets in addition to the "full" datasheets. They aren't very "standardized"; the AVR diagrams quoted above list each timer separately, while a TI datasheet I'm looking at has a single block that says "Timers(12)"...

Yes, some places are very detailed and some pages are very superficial.

Yes, some places are very detailed and some pages are very superficial.

I know, that is so annoying when you are trying to get coursework done!