Modbus RTU Slave "Flash problems"

Modbus RTU Slave “Flash problems”
<using version 11>
I have been working on a “Modbus RTU Slave” sketch for the Arduino. Its has CRC checking on the
serial data communications. Assigning an array for the CRC array or table uses precious RAM for the 2 256 byte arrays. So I decided to put the arrays or tables into flash. When I #include <avr/pgmspace.h> and inserted the flash commands I ONLY gained 12 bytes in flash for a 512 byte flash table! In this “Test code”, only the CRC function is used. Then putting this code in my “Application Code” the Flash size increased from 4714 to a whooping 7954 - an 3240 byte increase to save only 512 bytes. This has
to be a compiler bug? Any help is appreciated. Due to the 5.5 k limit on the forum I can email the “Application code” for those interested in solving this problem.

Test code:
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>

unsigned char Modbus_CRC_Hi = 0xFF;
unsigned char Modbus_CRC_Low = 0xFF;

unsigned char test_array[2] = {
0x00,0x00};

void setup()
{
}

void loop()
{
CRC16(test_array,2);
}

// CRC Generation Function

void CRC16(unsigned char *puchMsg, unsigned short usDataLen )

{
unsigned char uchCRCHi = 0xFF ;
unsigned char uchCRCLo = 0xFF ;

//High-Order Byte Table - DO NOT MODIFY !
/* Table of CRC values for high–order byte */

prog_uchar auchCRCHi[257] PROGMEM = {
//unsigned char auchCRCHi[257] = {
0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81,
0x40, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01, 0xC0,
0x80, 0x41, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01,
0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41,
0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81,
0x40, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x01, 0xC0,
0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x01,
0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40,
0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81,
0x40, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01, 0xC0,
0x80, 0x41, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01,
0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41,
0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81,
0x40, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01, 0xC0,
0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x01,
0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41,
0x00, 0xC1, 0x81, 0x40, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x01, 0xC0, 0x80, 0x41, 0x00, 0xC1, 0x81,
0x40
}
;
//Low-Order Byte Table - DO NOT MODIFY !
/* Table of CRC values for low–order byte */
prog_char auchCRCLo[257] PROGMEM = {
//char auchCRCLo[257] = {
0x00, 0xC0, 0xC1, 0x01, 0xC3, 0x03, 0x02, 0xC2, 0xC6, 0x06, 0x07, 0xC7, 0x05, 0xC5, 0xC4,
0x04, 0xCC, 0x0C, 0x0D, 0xCD, 0x0F, 0xCF, 0xCE, 0x0E, 0x0A, 0xCA, 0xCB, 0x0B, 0xC9, 0x09,
0x08, 0xC8, 0xD8, 0x18, 0x19, 0xD9, 0x1B, 0xDB, 0xDA, 0x1A, 0x1E, 0xDE, 0xDF, 0x1F, 0xDD,
0x1D, 0x1C, 0xDC, 0x14, 0xD4, 0xD5, 0x15, 0xD7, 0x17, 0x16, 0xD6, 0xD2, 0x12, 0x13, 0xD3,
0x11, 0xD1, 0xD0, 0x10, 0xF0, 0x30, 0x31, 0xF1, 0x33, 0xF3, 0xF2, 0x32, 0x36, 0xF6, 0xF7,
0x37, 0xF5, 0x35, 0x34, 0xF4, 0x3C, 0xFC, 0xFD, 0x3D, 0xFF, 0x3F, 0x3E, 0xFE, 0xFA, 0x3A,
0x3B, 0xFB, 0x39, 0xF9, 0xF8, 0x38, 0x28, 0xE8, 0xE9, 0x29, 0xEB, 0x2B, 0x2A, 0xEA, 0xEE,
0x2E, 0x2F, 0xEF, 0x2D, 0xED, 0xEC, 0x2C, 0xE4, 0x24, 0x25, 0xE5, 0x27, 0xE7, 0xE6, 0x26,
0x22, 0xE2, 0xE3, 0x23, 0xE1, 0x21, 0x20, 0xE0, 0xA0, 0x60, 0x61, 0xA1, 0x63, 0xA3, 0xA2,
0x62, 0x66, 0xA6, 0xA7, 0x67, 0xA5, 0x65, 0x64, 0xA4, 0x6C, 0xAC, 0xAD, 0x6D, 0xAF, 0x6F,
0x6E, 0xAE, 0xAA, 0x6A, 0x6B, 0xAB, 0x69, 0xA9, 0xA8, 0x68, 0x78, 0xB8, 0xB9, 0x79, 0xBB,
0x7B, 0x7A, 0xBA, 0xBE, 0x7E, 0x7F, 0xBF, 0x7D, 0xBD, 0xBC, 0x7C, 0xB4, 0x74, 0x75, 0xB5,
0x77, 0xB7, 0xB6, 0x76, 0x72, 0xB2, 0xB3, 0x73, 0xB1, 0x71, 0x70, 0xB0, 0x50, 0x90, 0x91,
0x51, 0x93, 0x53, 0x52, 0x92, 0x96, 0x56, 0x57, 0x97, 0x55, 0x95, 0x94, 0x54, 0x9C, 0x5C,
0x5D, 0x9D, 0x5F, 0x9F, 0x9E, 0x5E, 0x5A, 0x9A, 0x9B, 0x5B, 0x99, 0x59, 0x58, 0x98, 0x88,
0x48, 0x49, 0x89, 0x4B, 0x8B, 0x8A, 0x4A, 0x4E, 0x8E, 0x8F, 0x4F, 0x8D, 0x4D, 0x4C, 0x8C,
0x44, 0x84, 0x85, 0x45, 0x87, 0x47, 0x46, 0x86, 0x82, 0x42, 0x43, 0x83, 0x41, 0x81, 0x80,
0x40
}
;

int uIndex ;
while (usDataLen–)
{
uIndex = uchCRCHi ^ *puchMsg++ ;
//uchCRCHi = uchCRCLo ^ auchCRCHi[uIndex] ;
//uchCRCLo = auchCRCLo[uIndex] ;
uchCRCHi = uchCRCLo ^ pgm_read_byte_near(auchCRCHi[uIndex]) ;
uchCRCLo = pgm_read_byte_near(auchCRCLo[uIndex]) ;
}
Modbus_CRC_Hi = uchCRCHi; // write to global variable
Modbus_CRC_Low = uchCRCLo; // write to global variable
}

Hi,

How did you get on with the Modbus implementation? Is the Arduino up to the job?

What is the max polling rate and message length you achieved?

I'm hoping to get Modbus in - any pointers would be useful. Initially I want to create a general purpose piece of I/O simulation kit, or hook up to a PC for home automation projects.

Thanks for any feedback/comments.

Steve

hello,

may I ask, what you're using these big tables for? Bitwise AND, XOR and SHIFT are operations implemented in the Arduino language as far as I know and more is not needed to calculate the CRC16 with unsigned int's. Did I miss something?

Greetings, Werner

Don’t know if it can help, but I found this CRC snippet on some site somewhere a while back and thought I would play with someday if I needed 16 bit CRC function. This is calculated rather then using a look-up table.

Excellent CRC code.
// Update the CRC for transmitted and received data using
// the CCITT 16bit algorithm (X^16 + X^12 + X^5 + 1).
unsigned char ser_data;
static unsigned int crc;
crc = (unsigned char)(crc >> 8) | (crc << 8);
crc ^= ser_data;
crc ^= (unsigned char)(crc & 0xff) >> 4;
crc ^= (crc << 8) << 4;
crc ^= ((crc & 0xff) << 4) << 1;

Lefty

Hi I think ModBUS CRC would be like this:

unsigned int crc=0xffff;
while(bytes_left–) {
crc^=data_byte;
for(int i=0;i<8;i++) {
lsb=crc & 1;
crc>>=1;
if(lsb) crc^=0xa001;
}
}

Agreed the bigger question is why are you using a CRC table instead of simply calculating it then concatenating that to you RTU command?

Nice to see interest in MODBUS. I am looking to add MODBUS as well.

You may want to look at this Modbus master and slave implementation:

http://sites.google.com/site/jpmzometa/arduino-mbrt