I took apart a few broken electronics and i found some parts:
A black rectangular chiplike thing with 4 pins that has printed on it: DB1046 ~546~.
post a pic - could be a lot of things, some of which are easy to recognize.
A yellow thing that looks like a capacitor that has printed on it: SS60 025.
What was it labeled as on the board? Could be a number of things. How bout pics?
Another yellow thing only fatter with 3 pins and scratched so that i can only read: C__00R (2 letters missing).
Resonator I'll bet.
A small metal cylander with 2 pins. I thought it was a piezo buzzer but i tested it and it didn't make a sound. It also had a fuzzy-ish top.
It was a microphone. It is now trash
An LED like thing (i think it's an LED) only with 3 pins and not 2.
bicolor LED - 2 leds in one package sharing one common lead, probably the positive side
And lastly, you know how on the Arduino Uno Rev3 there is an oval cylander marked: YL 16.0YD0D
I found the same thing, only it was marked: Q27.00E33H0
27 mhz crystal.
Do you know ... how to use them?
Put in drawer marked pulls. If you do it alot, sort the pulls. I use little makeup/lipbalm containers from amazon to sort parts, particularly crystals.
For projects you plan ahead, buy the correct parts new and use them. Only use the pulls if you're desperate and can't wait for shipping, or the part is particularly expensive new and unlikely to be damaged. Otherwise, your time is worth enough that the headache of working with potentially failed parts isn't worth it
In general, the context you find the parts in on the board is key to knowing what they do. The letter in front of the number printed on the board is a key clue - particularly, for example, for that yellow thing. Location too - the 4-pinned thing - if that's near where AC is coming in, it's probably a bridge rectifier. If it's bridging the gap between high and low voltage parts of a power supply, it's an opto. And so on....
Once you take the parts out of context, you lose a big clue as to what they are.
I pull crystals (if I don't already have a lib-balm container full of them such that I can't fit any more), coils, 0.1" pitch ribbon cable... I used to pull bridge rectifiers and beefy looking diodes, but now I'm overstocked on those... I scored some spiffy looking SMD diodes in cylindrical MELF packages last night from a motherboard - they look like 1A or 1.5A rated, and those are surprisingly expensive, and look sexier than a normal diode.
Caps... if I can get a lot of beefy (4.7-22 uf) ceramic caps without much work, I grab em, otherwise never. Tants I don't usually bother with - but that's partly because I'm well stocked on them and mostly use ceramics anyway. Electrolytic caps age gracelessly, I don't keep them, but my father disagrees and plans to use a bunch of em for some project.