Newbie to wiring up Arduino projects / Hard wiring common practices

I'm looking for advise on Hard wiring common practices to avoid noise reliability issues with Arduino

I'm a newbie to this stuff and I have a project I'm working on that has many components. I don't have a schematic to provide so please don't hate on me. I know I need a common ground and will do so. Keeping current draw in mind Theoretically I know I can daisy chain the ground from component to component or I can wire all grounds back to a common distribution point. Logistically, trouble shooting, ect what is the common practice for hard-wiring projects. I'll use push pin, solder connections, heat shrink and a couple of wire nuts as components allow. Vibration is not an issue.

For back ground and context: My power controller is a Arduino Mega, my supply is a 20V DC 6amp supply. Using 2 Buck converters to step down to 12V and 2.8V. component list : 5 12v DC motors, 3 12V Stepper motors, 3 5V relays, 6 5V motor controller boards, Mosfets, Resistors, Diodes, capacitors, 15 LEDS, 120V AC Vacuum motor, 120V AC heater element, 7 Momentary switches, 4 liquid level switches, 1 power switch, 14, 18 and 22 awg wire. Project foot print is approx 18"W x 16"D x 10"H

All "larger" power items, such as 120V AC items, my 3 stepper motors and 5 12V DC motors, will have their own dedicated ground.

Don’t ever "daisy chain the ground from component to component ". Use one solid single point for GND.

It is not so simple.

The layout of interconnection between multiple parts is a subject in itself. "Lead dress" is extremely important and a frequent aspect of discussions here regarding "mysterious" crashes and failures when mains power is being controlled. There is no simple answer and it would require elaboration of your whole project.


I frequently stress the need to keep the wiring from one part to another together, power wire with ground return; control wire with its return (which return for many common relay modules, is not the ground). The idea is to avoid loops which permit inductive coupling; we are dealing with devices which are operating at HF (3 to 30 MHz) radio frequencies here, electromagnetic transmission is a very real matter.