Would it be possible, to run a .exe file, located on my desktop, with the click of a button on the arduino board. If so, how would an example code look? My path looks like this: C:\Users\Disabled\Desktop\arduino\start.exe How would I go about triggering this file?
You can use an Arduino that supports HID functionality (e.g. Arduino Leonardo or Micro, Sparkfun ProMicro, ...).
They can act like a keyboard and send keystrokes.