If you want to stay with an "open source" approach, then check out the Contraptor project:
Also, you might want to check out the RepRap project:
You could also build a nice CNC milling machine using T-slot; either standard sized or micro:
Another possibility would be to do a CNC conversion on a regular mill, or buy it pre-made; do a search on "homebrew cnc" and "homemade cnc" - there are tons of sites, links, articles, etc out there.
There are also great vendors and such like Little Machine Shop:
That can help you get set up with a good machine for CNC milling. There are also many inexpensive manual milling machines that are fairly easy to convert to CNC (and there are also people who sell conversion kits and plans).
For your budget, you have some options; if I were seriously thinking of setting up some kind of production line, I would consider a custom Contraptor-like system using t-slot to build a CNC machine running with a dremel tool as the head, for milling the PCB. I would also attempt a separate machine to place solder paste on the smd pads, and maybe a third for pick-n-place of parts (both of these would be a challenge, though).
, and then a separate similar
as others have noted, your only real option will be an etching tank (with your choice of photoresist application method), and then using CNC