PNP NO 3-wire Cylindrical Proximity Sensor with Arduino Uno

I am connecting the PNP NO 3-wire cylindrical proximity sensor with arduino uno as per the instruction given in the following url,

Now, can anyone please clear me on the following things,

  1. Arduino UNO is cable to reading only 5V input in analog pins. How come this PNP NO sensor which is capable to 6-36v can connect with arduino ? will this not damage the board ?

If anything, at 5V, you are underpowering the sensor.
If this is a problem, use a separate 6 to 36 V supply for the sensor, but don't forget to common the grounds.

Thanks for your suggestion for separate power supply with common ground.

If the sensor is 6-36 v, then what happens when i connect my analog pin of the sensor with the analog pin of my controller. My question is, will it damage the board and will it affect on reading the analog values?