Point to point LoRa Vs LoraWAN, what to use?

Hello! I am trying to adapt an existing project to give it wireless connectivity so I can access the data remotely, but I am confused by the differences between LoRa, LoRaWAN, and whether to use The Things Network would be the right approach.

The project right now is a sensor connected to the serial port of an arduino UNO and attached to a drone, to which I want to add a shield for LoRa connectivity and GPS data. I would also want to make a second device to act as a LoRa gateway and that could act as a local webserver to show the data in situations where there is no 3g/4g coverage.

As far as I read, LoRa only covers the physical layer of the communications, which means I would need to implement error checks of communications on my own if I were to use a point to point connection between the two devices.
Using LoraWAN should take care of that aspect for me, but I am unsure if I need specific hardware that supports it, how to implement it's usage in an Arduino board and its Raspberry counterpart, or whether it would require an internet connection to work since all the tutorials I see gloss over that part and just focus on connecting to TTN directly.

I would need the sensor to be able to transmit data to the gateway and for the gateway to store and show that data even in situations where it has no internet access and can only show it in its own LAN.

Short version:

  • Do i need special hardware to use LoRaWAN?
  • How do I implement LoRaWAN in arduino and raspberry pi?
  • If I'm using LoRaWAN, do I need to connect to TTN or can I work without internet connectivity?

Thank you for your help and I hope I made sense.

metichi:
The project right now is a sensor connected to the serial port of an arduino UNO and attached to a drone, to which I want to add a shield for LoRa connectivity and GPS data. I would also want to make a second device to act as a LoRa gateway and that could act as a local webserver to show the data in situations where there is no 3g/4g coverage

This does not make a lot of sense to me.

If there is no '3g/4g coverage' by which I presume you mean non-wired internet connectivity, how would a 'LoRa Gateway' (and do you mean TTN ?) be able to forward data to a webserver ?

Perhaps explaining what the real project actually is would help the forum.