Powering a component that requires more than the arduino can supply

I'm sorry if this is a newbie question or if someone else has posted something similar but i cant find anything.

As the title states, I need to power a fan which requires 12 volts as well as other components such as a transistor, potentiometer and led. The problem is that I can't use the fan at max power since there is not enough power. Is there any way to increase the voltage input without frying the arduino or some other way I can improve power efficiency?

Again, sorry for the newbie question

Thanks, Muaz

You will need an external 12V power supply then use a transistor or relay to switch that power to the fan.

You can do it by external 12V power supply and a some additional circuits

That is a scary diagram. It shows at least 9 different ways of doing the same thing, maybe more if you count the optional components.

For me, the decision process is like this...

For my very first project or I'm not too sure about cutting into an existing 12V circuit, I will use a relay, preferably on a pre-made shield.

For more advanced control such as speed control or driving the motor forwards and backwards, I will use a motor driver shield.

For the minimum number of components or minimum PCB space, I will use a single N type MOSFET configured as a low-side switch.

When high-side switching or maybe I need a few similar outputs, I will use a dedicated automotive driver chip. Some of these are really nice with feedback to tell you if the globe has blown or is unplugged.

For high voltage such as mains voltage safety isolation is the most critical concern. Then I need components like optocouplers and thoughtful PCB design or I need a pre-built module again.

No, the question in itself is problematic.

We know the Arduino does not "supply" any power to a device other than a LED up to 20 mA. So when he says:

MuazS: The problem is that I can't use the fan at max power since there is not enough power. Is there any way to increase the voltage input without frying the Arduino or some other way I can improve power efficiency?

We need a proper description of what he is actually trying to do.

Essentially, it gives no information at all. Common problem; people think they have asked a question, but simply have not.