Problem while creating Laser tag game

Hello,
I am new to electronics, however I have created the circuit as you mentioned on instructables, I uploaded the code to my Arduino nano aTmega328 CH340G (old bootloader), firstly the code was not working with external 9v supply to VIN pin - the output on 5v pin was 7.36v and also every other pin is giving 3v output so I switch it to usb port for powering Arduino, it works fine now but again I got problem with code I think. .. The codes are as follows :
Codes credit : J44industries

// Digital IO's
int triggerPin = 3; // Push button for primary fire. Low = pressed
int trigger2Pin = 13; // Push button for secondary fire. Low = pressed
int speakerPin = 4; // Direct output to piezo sounder/speaker
int audioPin = 9; // Audio Trigger. Can be used to set off sounds recorded in the kind of electronics you can get in greetings card that play a custom message.
int lifePin = 6; // An analogue output (PWM) level corresponds to remaining life. Use PWM pin: 3,5,6,9,10 or 11. Can be used to drive LED bar graphs. eg LM3914N
int ammoPin = 5; // An analogue output (PWM) level corresponds to remaining ammunition. Use PWM pin: 3,5,6,9,10 or 11.
int hitPin = 7; // LED output pin used to indicate when the player has been hit.
int IRtransmitPin = 2; // Primary fire mode IR transmitter pin: Use pins 2,4,7,8,12 or 13. DO NOT USE PWM pins!!
int IRtransmit2Pin = 8; // Secondary fire mode IR transmitter pin: Use pins 2,4,7,8,12 or 13. DO NOT USE PWM pins!!
int IRreceivePin = 12; // The pin that incoming IR signals are read from
int IRreceive2Pin = 11; // Allows for checking external sensors are attached as well as distinguishing between sensor locations (eg spotting head shots)
// Minimum gun requirements: trigger, receiver, IR led, hit LED.

// Player and Game details
int myTeamID = 1; // 1-7 (0 = system message)
int myPlayerID = 5; // Player ID
int myGameID = 0; // Interprited by configureGane subroutine; allows for quick change of game types.
int myWeaponID = 0; // Deffined by gameType and configureGame subroutine.
int myWeaponHP = 0; // Deffined by gameType and configureGame subroutine.
int maxAmmo = 0; // Deffined by gameType and configureGame subroutine.
int maxLife = 0; // Deffined by gameType and configureGame subroutine.
int automatic = 0; // Deffined by gameType and configureGame subroutine. Automatic fire 0 = Semi Auto, 1 = Fully Auto.
int automatic2 = 0; // Deffined by gameType and configureGame subroutine. Secondary fire auto?

//Incoming signal Details
int received[18]; // Received data: received[0] = which sensor, received[1] - [17] byte1 byte2 parity (Miles Tag structure)
int check = 0; // Variable used in parity checking

// Stats
int ammo = 0; // Current ammunition
int life = 0; // Current life

// Code Variables
int timeOut = 0; // Deffined in frequencyCalculations (IRpulse + 50)
int FIRE = 0; // 0 = don't fire, 1 = Primary Fire, 2 = Secondary Fire
int TR = 0; // Trigger Reading
int LTR = 0; // Last Trigger Reading
int T2R = 0; // Trigger 2 Reading (For secondary fire)
int LT2R = 0; // Last Trigger 2 Reading (For secondary fire)

// Signal Properties
int IRpulse = 600; // Basic pulse duration of 600uS MilesTag standard 4*IRpulse for header bit, 2*IRpulse for 1, 1*IRpulse for 0.
int IRfrequency = 38; // Frequency in kHz Standard values are: 38kHz, 40kHz. Choose dependant on your receiver characteristics
int IRt = 0; // LED on time to give correct transmission frequency, calculated in setup.
int IRpulses = 0; // Number of oscillations needed to make a full IRpulse, calculated in setup.
int header = 4; // Header lenght in pulses. 4 = Miles tag standard
int maxSPS = 10; // Maximum Shots Per Seconds. Not yet used.
int TBS = 0; // Time between shots. Not yet used.

// Transmission data
int byte1[8]; // String for storing byte1 of the data which gets transmitted when the player fires.
int byte2[8]; // String for storing byte1 of the data which gets transmitted when the player fires.
int myParity = 0; // String for storing parity of the data which gets transmitted when the player fires.

// Received data
int memory = 10; // Number of signals to be recorded: Allows for the game data to be reviewed after the game, no provision for transmitting / accessing it yet though.
int hitNo = 0; // Hit number
// Byte1
int player[10]; // Array must be as large as memory
int team[10]; // Array must be as large as memory
// Byte2
int weapon[10]; // Array must be as large as memory
int hp[10]; // Array must be as large as memory
int parity[10]; // Array must be as large as memory


void setup() {
  // Serial coms set up to help with debugging.
  Serial.begin(9600);              
  Serial.println("Startup...");
  // Pin declarations
  pinMode(triggerPin, INPUT);
  pinMode(trigger2Pin, INPUT);
  pinMode(speakerPin, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(audioPin, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(lifePin, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(ammoPin, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(hitPin, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(IRtransmitPin, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(IRtransmit2Pin, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(IRreceivePin, INPUT);
  pinMode(IRreceive2Pin, INPUT);

  frequencyCalculations(); // Calculates pulse lengths etc for desired frequency
  configureGame(); // Look up and configure game details
  tagCode(); // Based on game details etc works out the data that will be transmitted when a shot is fired


  digitalWrite(triggerPin, HIGH); // Not really needed if your circuit has the correct pull up resistors already but doesn't harm
  digitalWrite(trigger2Pin, HIGH); // Not really needed if your circuit has the correct pull up resistors already but doesn't harm

  for (int i = 1;i < 254;i++) { // Loop plays start up noise
    analogWrite(ammoPin, i);
    playTone((3000-9*i), 2);
  } 

  // Next 4 lines initialise the display LEDs
  analogWrite(ammoPin, ((int) ammo));
  analogWrite(lifePin, ((int) life));
  lifeDisplay();
  ammoDisplay();

  Serial.println("Ready....");
}


// Main loop most of the code is in the sub routines
void loop(){
  receiveIR();
  if(FIRE != 0){
    shoot();
    ammoDisplay();
  }
  triggers();
}


// SUB ROUTINES


void ammoDisplay() { // Updates Ammo LED output
  float ammoF;
  ammoF = (260/maxAmmo) * ammo;
  if(ammoF <= 0){ammoF = 0;}
  if(ammoF > 255){ammoF = 255;}
  analogWrite(ammoPin, ((int) ammoF));
}


void lifeDisplay() { // Updates Ammo LED output
  float lifeF;
  lifeF = (260/maxLife) * life;
  if(lifeF <= 0){lifeF = 0;}
  if(lifeF > 255){lifeF = 255;}
  analogWrite(lifePin, ((int) lifeF));
} 


void receiveIR() { // Void checks for an incoming signal and decodes it if it sees one.
  int error = 0;

  if(digitalRead(IRreceivePin) == LOW){ // If the receive pin is low a signal is being received.
    digitalWrite(hitPin,HIGH);
    if(digitalRead(IRreceive2Pin) == LOW){ // Is the incoming signal being received by the head sensors?
      received[0] = 1;
    }
    else{
      received[0] = 0;
    }

    while(digitalRead(IRreceivePin) == LOW){
    }
    for(int i = 1; i <= 17; i++) { // Repeats several times to make sure the whole signal has been received
      received[i] = pulseIn(IRreceivePin, LOW, timeOut); // pulseIn command waits for a pulse and then records its duration in microseconds.
    }

    Serial.print("sensor: "); // Prints if it was a head shot or not.
    Serial.print(received[0]); 
    Serial.print("...");

    for(int i = 1; i <= 17; i++) { // Looks at each one of the received pulses
      int receivedTemp[18];
      receivedTemp[i] = 2;
      if(received[i] > (IRpulse - 200) && received[i] < (IRpulse + 200)) {receivedTemp[i] = 0;} // Works out from the pulse length if it was a data 1 or 0 that was received writes result to receivedTemp string
      if(received[i] > (IRpulse + IRpulse - 200) && received[i] < (IRpulse + IRpulse + 200)) {receivedTemp[i] = 1;} // Works out from the pulse length if it was a data 1 or 0 that was received  
      received[i] = 3; // Wipes raw received data
      received[i] = receivedTemp[i]; // Inputs interpreted data

      Serial.print(" ");
      Serial.print(received[i]); // Print interpreted data results
    }
    Serial.println(""); // New line to tidy up printed results

    // Parity Check. Was the data received a valid signal?
    check = 0;
    for(int i = 1; i <= 16; i++) {
      if(received[i] == 1){check = check + 1;}
      if(received[i] == 2){error = 1;}
    }
    // Serial.println(check);
    check = check >> 0 & B1;
    // Serial.println(check);
    if(check != received[17]){error = 1;}
    if(error == 0){Serial.println("Valid Signal");}
    else{Serial.println("ERROR");}
    if(error == 0){interpritReceived();}
    digitalWrite(hitPin,LOW);
  }
}


void interpritReceived(){ // After a message has been received by the ReceiveIR subroutine this subroutine decidedes how it should react to the data
  if(hitNo == memory){hitNo = 0;} // hitNo sorts out where the data should be stored if statement means old data gets overwritten if too much is received
  team[hitNo] = 0;
  player[hitNo] = 0;
  weapon[hitNo] = 0;
  hp[hitNo] = 0;
  // Next few lines Effectivly converts the binary data into decimal
  // Im sure there must be a much more efficient way of doing this
  if(received[1] == 1){team[hitNo] = team[hitNo] + 4;}
  if(received[2] == 1){team[hitNo] = team[hitNo] + 2;}
  if(received[3] == 1){team[hitNo] = team[hitNo] + 1;} 

  if(received[4] == 1){player[hitNo] = player[hitNo] + 16;}
  if(received[5] == 1){player[hitNo] = player[hitNo] + 8;}
  if(received[6] == 1){player[hitNo] = player[hitNo] + 4;}
  if(received[7] == 1){player[hitNo] = player[hitNo] + 2;}
  if(received[8] == 1){player[hitNo] = player[hitNo] + 1;}

  if(received[9] == 1){weapon[hitNo] = weapon[hitNo] + 4;}
  if(received[10] == 1){weapon[hitNo] = weapon[hitNo] + 2;}
  if(received[11] == 1){weapon[hitNo] = weapon[hitNo] + 1;} 

  if(received[12] == 1){hp[hitNo] = hp[hitNo] + 16;}
  if(received[13] == 1){hp[hitNo] = hp[hitNo] + 8;}
  if(received[14] == 1){hp[hitNo] = hp[hitNo] + 4;}
  if(received[15] == 1){hp[hitNo] = hp[hitNo] + 2;}
  if(received[16] == 1){hp[hitNo] = hp[hitNo] + 1;}

  parity[hitNo] = received[17];

  Serial.print("Hit No: ");
  Serial.print(hitNo);
  Serial.print(" Player: ");
  Serial.print(player[hitNo]);
  Serial.print(" Team: ");
  Serial.print(team[hitNo]);
  Serial.print(" Weapon: ");
  Serial.print(weapon[hitNo]);
  Serial.print(" HP: ");
  Serial.print(hp[hitNo]);
  Serial.print(" Parity: ");
  Serial.println(parity[hitNo]);


  //This is probably where more code should be added to expand the game capabilities at the moment the code just checks that the received data was not a system message and deducts a life if it wasn't.
  if (player[hitNo] != 0){hit();}
  hitNo++ ;
}


void shoot() {
  if(FIRE == 1){ // Has the trigger been pressed?
    Serial.println("FIRE 1");
    sendPulse(IRtransmitPin, 4); // Transmit Header pulse, send pulse subroutine deals with the details
    delayMicroseconds(IRpulse);

    for(int i = 0; i < 8; i++) { // Transmit Byte1
      if(byte1[i] == 1){
        sendPulse(IRtransmitPin, 1);
        //Serial.print("1 ");
      }
      //else{Serial.print("0 ");}
      sendPulse(IRtransmitPin, 1);
      delayMicroseconds(IRpulse);
    }

    for(int i = 0; i < 8; i++) { // Transmit Byte2
      if(byte2[i] == 1){
        sendPulse(IRtransmitPin, 1);
       // Serial.print("1 ");
      }
      //else{Serial.print("0 ");}
      sendPulse(IRtransmitPin, 1);
      delayMicroseconds(IRpulse);
    }

    if(myParity == 1){ // Parity
      sendPulse(IRtransmitPin, 1);
    }
    sendPulse(IRtransmitPin, 1);
    delayMicroseconds(IRpulse);
    Serial.println("");
    Serial.println("DONE 1");
  }


  if(FIRE == 2){ // Where a secondary fire mode would be added
    Serial.println("FIRE 2");
    sendPulse(IRtransmitPin, 4); // Header
    Serial.println("DONE 2");
  }
FIRE = 0;
ammo = ammo - 1;
}


void sendPulse(int pin, int length){ // importing variables like this allows for secondary fire modes etc.
// This void genertates the carrier frequency for the information to be transmitted
  int i = 0;
  int o = 0;
  while( i < length ){
    i++;
    while( o < IRpulses ){
      o++;
      digitalWrite(pin, HIGH);
      delayMicroseconds(IRt);
      digitalWrite(pin, LOW);
      delayMicroseconds(IRt);
    }
  }
}


void triggers() { // Checks to see if the triggers have been presses
  LTR = TR; // Records previous state. Primary fire
  LT2R = T2R; // Records previous state. Secondary fire
  TR = digitalRead(triggerPin); // Looks up current trigger button state
  T2R = digitalRead(trigger2Pin); // Looks up current trigger button state
  // Code looks for changes in trigger state to give it a semi automatic shooting behaviour
  if(TR != LTR && TR == LOW){
    FIRE = 1;
  }
  if(T2R != LT2R && T2R == LOW){
    FIRE = 2;
  }
  if(TR == LOW && automatic == 1){
    FIRE = 1;
  }
  if(T2R == LOW && automatic2 == 1){
    FIRE = 2;
  }
  if(FIRE == 1 || FIRE == 2){
    if(ammo < 1){FIRE = 0; noAmmo();}
    if(life < 1){FIRE = 0; dead();}
    // Fire rate code to be added here  
  }

}


void configureGame() { // Where the game characteristics are stored, allows several game types to be recorded and you only have to change one variable (myGameID) to pick the game.
  if(myGameID == 0){
    myWeaponID = 1;
    maxAmmo = 30;
    ammo = 30;
    maxLife = 3;
    life = 3;
    myWeaponHP = 1;
  }
  if(myGameID == 1){
    myWeaponID = 1;
    maxAmmo = 100;
    ammo = 100;
    maxLife = 10;
    life = 10;
    myWeaponHP = 2;
  }
}


void frequencyCalculations() { // Works out all the timings needed to give the correct carrier frequency for the IR signal
  IRt = (int) (500/IRfrequency);  
  IRpulses = (int) (IRpulse / (2*IRt));
  IRt = IRt - 4;
  // Why -4 I hear you cry. It allows for the time taken for commands to be executed.

  Serial.print("Oscilation time period /2: ");
  Serial.println(IRt);
  Serial.print("Pulses: ");
  Serial.println(IRpulses);
  timeOut = IRpulse + 50; // Adding 50 to the expected pulse time gives a little margin for error on the pulse read time out value
}


void tagCode() { // Works out what the players tagger code (the code that is transmitted when they shoot) is
  byte1[0] = myTeamID >> 2 & B1;
  byte1[1] = myTeamID >> 1 & B1;
  byte1[2] = myTeamID >> 0 & B1;

  byte1[3] = myPlayerID >> 4 & B1;
  byte1[4] = myPlayerID >> 3 & B1;
  byte1[5] = myPlayerID >> 2 & B1;
  byte1[6] = myPlayerID >> 1 & B1;
  byte1[7] = myPlayerID >> 0 & B1;


  byte2[0] = myWeaponID >> 2 & B1;
  byte2[1] = myWeaponID >> 1 & B1;
  byte2[2] = myWeaponID >> 0 & B1;

  byte2[3] = myWeaponHP >> 4 & B1;
  byte2[4] = myWeaponHP >> 3 & B1;
  byte2[5] = myWeaponHP >> 2 & B1;
  byte2[6] = myWeaponHP >> 1 & B1;
  byte2[7] = myWeaponHP >> 0 & B1;

  myParity = 0;
  for (int i=0; i<8; i++) {
   if(byte1[i] == 1){myParity = myParity + 1;}
   if(byte2[i] == 1){myParity = myParity + 1;}
   myParity = myParity >> 0 & B1;
  }

  // Next few lines print the full tagger code.
  Serial.print("Byte1: ");
  Serial.print(byte1[0]);
  Serial.print(byte1[1]);
  Serial.print(byte1[2]);
  Serial.print(byte1[3]);
  Serial.print(byte1[4]);
  Serial.print(byte1[5]);
  Serial.print(byte1[6]);
  Serial.print(byte1[7]);
  Serial.println();

  Serial.print("Byte2: ");
  Serial.print(byte2[0]);
  Serial.print(byte2[1]);
  Serial.print(byte2[2]);
  Serial.print(byte2[3]);
  Serial.print(byte2[4]);
  Serial.print(byte2[5]);
  Serial.print(byte2[6]);
  Serial.print(byte2[7]);
  Serial.println();

  Serial.print("Parity: ");
  Serial.print(myParity);
  Serial.println();
}


void playTone(int tone, int duration) { // A sub routine for playing tones like the standard arduino melody example
  for (long i = 0; i < duration * 1000L; i += tone * 2) {
    digitalWrite(speakerPin, HIGH);
    delayMicroseconds(tone);
    digitalWrite(speakerPin, LOW);
    delayMicroseconds(tone);
  }
}


void dead() { // void determines what the tagger does when it is out of lives
  // Makes a few noises and flashes some lights
  for (int i = 1;i < 254;i++) {
    analogWrite(ammoPin, i);
    playTone((1000+9*i), 2);
  } 
  analogWrite(ammoPin, ((int) ammo));
  analogWrite(lifePin, ((int) life));
  Serial.println("DEAD");

  for (int i=0; i<10; i++) {
   analogWrite(ammoPin, 255);
   digitalWrite(hitPin,HIGH);
   delay (500);
   analogWrite(ammoPin, 0);
   digitalWrite(hitPin,LOW);
   delay (500);
  }
}


void noAmmo() { // Make some noise and flash some lights when out of ammo
  digitalWrite(hitPin,HIGH);
  playTone(500, 100);
  playTone(1000, 100);
  digitalWrite(hitPin,LOW);
}


void hit() { // Make some noise and flash some lights when you get shot
  digitalWrite(hitPin,HIGH);
  life = life - hp[hitNo];
  Serial.print("Life: ");
  Serial.println(life);
  playTone(500, 500);
  if(life <= 0){dead();}
  digitalWrite(hitPin,LOW);
  lifeDisplay();
}

when the program starts it says this -

Startup...
Oscillation time period /2:9
Pulses: 23
Byte 1: 00100101
Byte 2: 00100001
Parity: 1
Ready...

And when I press trigger paizo gives a small sound and IR led glows I check it on cell phone camera but receiver dose not receive any data, hit led dose not glow... I am using TSOP31238 receiver.
When I send IR using TV remote the paizo gives a little sound but hit led dose not glow and also there is no change in Serial monitor's data.
I don't know what to do... Have I need to put details in the code?
Or anything to change in hardware?

I am attaching some circuit diagrams which I have used please take a look...

Please help me I am noobie in the field of electronics..

Welcome to the forum.

Can you please modify your original post to ensure the source code is in a single box? It should look like this.

// Your example source code

You need three ' at the beginning and end in the edit window? When you click on this icon </> you get.

```
type or paste code here
```

This ensures we can get all the source code. Right now the code cannot be copied.

About your issue. This is the problem when you start with a large project you just copied from somebody. If you want to be successful in the long run, I recommend you start with the simple examples that come with the IDE (File -> Examples). Do not just load them but modify them until you understand what is going on.
You will make small mistakes and learn how to correct them.

What I can see in the code is that it is badly formatted. Try Tools -> Auto Form. You can modify the style if you have different preferences. Google formatter.conf into the forum to find out more.

The author also did not spent time to make the code suitable for beginners.

1 Like

If that Nano isn't dead, you measured wrong.

Instructables gets little to negative respect here because of their projects brought here.

I measured using multimeter connecting positive to 5v and negative to ground. I think the voltage regulator of my Arduino is defective that's why I am getting 7V on 5 V pin.

I need to understand the part where frequency is calculated and also want to know that why I am not getting 600 pulses

That part of the code is a good example why that code is not beginner friendly.

The code computes some constant values from constant values.

  • this could have been left to the compilers preprocessor.
  • the values should have been declared with const to make it obvious
  • the Arduino naming convention recommends to use ALL_CAPITAL_WITH_UNDERSCORE for constant values
  • because modern compilers are good at optimizing, the code could have been written differently without affecting performance

Here is a short description what the code does:

  • 1 / IR frequency gives the period
  • the IR frequency is given is kHz so the period is in ms
  • ( 2 * 500 ) is 1000 and converts the period value into microseconds
  • the IR pulse length divided by the IR period gives the number of pulses
  • IRt has only half a period because two of them are used in sendPulse
1 Like

Because > 5.5V on the 5V pin for a very short period kills the chip. VIN wires directly to the power socket, bypasses the chip, it can read 7V safely.

1 Like

Any alternate code for getting it working

I do not know. Since you ask, the chance you find exactly what you are looking for, where you do not need to do anything is low. Electronics is a hobby with infinite possibilities, and it requires a little bit of determination.

Allow me to repeat, I recommend you start with the simple examples that come with the IDE (File -> Examples). Do not just load them but modify them until you understand what is going on.

Then go through the code and hardware function by function and figure out how they work. When you figure this out by yourself you will be happy you did. Of course, if you have a specific question, we are here to help.

1 Like