Pull-up and pull-down resistors


can anyone direct me to a user friendly tutorial / help on these? How do I choose between the two types and what sizes of ohms etc…

No need,

I found one here when looking at a previous reply on a different subject:


Here are 3 really good articles:


by far the best overall description I’ve seen.


Good description of how to determine exact value for pull-up resistor

Good info on Arduino internal pull-ups

Thanks that's really helpful!

Just out of curiosity, why don't we use diodes instead?

I tried these pull-up / pull-down cicuits on a simulator with 10Meg resistors and they still work. So then I thought a diode could replace the large resistor and
it still worked.


Simulators usually do not handle shorts and opens very well.

A diode is (effectively) a short or open depending on the forward voltage. The resistor allows current to flow regardless of the voltage applied, which is why it “pulls-up/down.”


I understand better now.

I'll use 4.7 or 10k resistors on my buttons unless directed otherwise by designs or datasheets.