PWM frequency and range

I am very new to this, I have a tiny Nano connected via USB to my laptop and have been running some extra extra basic software.

I noticed the documentation on analogWrite() talks about 490Hz and the range is from 0..255. A friend told me that the atmega328 can actually use 10 bits and a much higher clock frequency for the PWM, could someone please tell me if this is somehow accessible to Arduino?

Some reading:

http://playground.arduino.cc/Main/TimerPWMCheatsheet

Thank you I am reading. I have also just discovered that there is a whole C library I can use - I had no idea. I do not even know if this is part of the Arduino Nano or part of the atmega328 chip, but I have called a few functions like sprintf and snprintf and malloc - they are all there - no idea how...