Hi, everyone!
I’m a student. I really like electronic products. It’s a honor to meet everyone in this forum. I want to learn more about electronic knowledge and make more friends here. I hope we can communicate each other in the future. Looking forward to our common progress!

Welcome. Have fun.


Hold on there, you have some homework to do ;) .

Arduino links of interest.

How to use this forum:

Listing of downloadable 'Arduino PDFs' : Either Google >>>- - - - > arduino filetype: pdf Or

Listing of downloadable 'C++ PDFs' : Either Google >>>- - - - > C++ filetype: pdf Or

Arduino cheat sheet:

Watch these: Arduino programming syntax:

Arduino arithmetic operators:

Arduino control flow:

Arduino data types:

Why MOSFET gate resistors:

Some things to read

Reading a schematic:

Language Reference:


How and Why to avoid delay():

Demonstration code for several things at the same time.

Multitasking: Part 1:

Part 2:

Part 3:

Micro Controllers:

Useful links:

Arduino programming traps, tips and style guide:

Call for useful programming discussions

Jeremy Blume:

Arduino products:



Share tips you have come across, 500+ posts:

Images from above:

Debug discussion:

Number 'type's. - boolean (8 bit) - simple logical true/false, Arduino does not use single bits for bool - byte (8 bit) - unsigned number from 0-255 - char (8 bit) - signed number from -128 to 127. The compiler will attempt to interpret this data type as a character in some circumstances, which may yield unexpected results - unsigned char (8 bit) - same as 'byte'; if this is what you're after, you should use 'byte' instead, for reasons of clarity - word (16 bit) - unsigned number from 0-65535 - unsigned int (16 bit)- the same as 'word'. Use 'word' instead for clarity and brevity int (16 bit) - signed number from -32768 to 32767. This is most commonly what you see used for general purpose variables in Arduino example code provided with the IDE - unsigned long (32 bit) - unsigned number from 0-4,294,967,295. The most common usage of this is to store the result of the millis() function, which returns the number of milliseconds the current code has been running - long (32 bit) - signed number from -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 float (32 bit) - signed number from -3.4028235E38 to 3.4028235E38. Floating point on the Arduino is not native; the compiler has to jump through hoops to make it work. If you can avoid it, you should. We'll touch on this later.

You select the 'type' best suited for your variables.

ex: - your variable does not change and it defines a pin on the Arduino. const byte limitSwitchPin = 34; - since an analog variable can be 0 to 1023, a byte will not do, you can select 'int'. int temperature; - if your variable needs to be within -64 to +64 a 'char' will do nicely. char joystick; - if your variable is used for ASCII then you need type 'char', char myText[] = {"Raspberry Pie Smells"}; - if your variable enables some code then boolean can be used. boolean enableFlag = false; - millis() returns the time in ms since rebooting, unsigned long currentTime = millis(); etc.

Oh, have fun too! .

larryd: Hold on there, you have some homework to do ;) .

All that? On her/his first day at school?


Have to hit the ground running.

I just added have fun too :)

Robin2: Welcome. Have fun.


thank you very much,haha

Robin2: All that? On her/his first day at school?


Haha, i'm very happy to get such a big present

I hope you have fun!

Welcome. Have fun.


Hallo. Mein Name ist Philip, ich komme aus Leipzig und neu hier, jetzt habe ich Freizeit, die ich gerne verbringen würde, um etwas Neues zu lernen

@whaidegind, there is a German language section of the Forum.