Sending and Receiving between Bluetooth (BLE) and PC

I'm making a project with Arduino Pro Mini (5V/16Mhz) with the ATmega328.

I've been searching a lot of information about communications using Bluetooth, but the best tutorial I've found is this one, but is for Android. For sending & receiving data to a PC with HC-05 and Putty I've found this tutorial in Spanish.

My project is a little bit special and I need to send a lot of data (data logging from 4 sensor written in a SD) using HC-08 or HC-10 [Bluetooth 4.0] because I need to save as much energy as can (that's why I use Arduino Pro Mini and the Stand-By mode).

My questions are the following:

  • Which protocol should I use to transfer the data without losing almost any data?
  • Is there a bidirectional way to check the data received and re-send the ones that are lost?
  • Is Putty the best option to send/receive Bluetooth data in a computer? Can I transfer the data to another program like Matlab for example?
  • Personally, do you think that the ATmega328 could use a program that uses Sleep, SD card and Software Serial libraries?

The problem is a bit complicated, but I think there must exist a protocol to exchange data, checking if any of the packages are lost and resending, like the used in Internet. Furthermore, there are just a few tutorials using BLE with Arduino.