Small distance sensor for Arduino

Hi everybody from Spain!

I am a newbie on Arduino, but I am really interested on a prototype designed to measure the section shape of an object using sensors around the piece. I would like to know what sensor is better for small distances and, to avoid the use of lot of sensors I would like to use a system which allows me to move the sensor around the piece to the documentation.

Sorry for my english, if you need more details I can attach a draw if you require it.

Thank you for your time and good monday.

Javi

What's your budget?
Commercial desktop 3d scanners cost several hundred dollars. Anything you build yourself is probably going to cost a lot more than that.

The best the Arduino can do is take care of the positioning of the sensor and reading it, then transmitting the sensor and position data to a much more powerful device that can actually process it and produce the 3D image.

The sensor will be one of the more expensive parts. It has to be accurate have a very narrow beam. The software that interprets the 3D sensor data will also not come cheap.