i want to build a weather station and keep it outside away from my house i want to power it with a rechargeable battery and i want to charge the battery with a a solar panel. my question is can i actually do this and it not harm my arduino in any way?
I saw weather station, house, rechargeable battery and solar panel. Where was the Arduino in all of this? Where were details about the environment?
You will probably not damage your Arduino as long as you stay within its input voltage limits and protect it from the weather.
It should be quite easy to do..
the only thing to be careful of is overcharging ( and hence damaging) the battery...
I'll point you at something I'm working on. It has a solar charge controller on board as well as the same microcontroller as an Uno. I have a few boards on order for the next revision (^5) at the moment.
The onboard charge controller works with standard 36 cell industrial type solar panels from 3W to 20W (e.g. SLP003-12U up to SLP020-12U) and charges a 12V SLA battery (e.g. 7AH up to 50AH).
I'm not sure what your weather station needs to measure. On my board, the ATmega328p's ADC is wired on board to measure PV voltage, Battery voltage, Battery charge, and battery discharge. Also, the I2C pins are dedicated, which leaves two free ADC channels that have current sources for sensors using current loops with plug connectors. ICP1 has input hardware with current sources that allow connecting sensors that make a timing pulse (e.g. flow meter, capacitive sensors...) and has plug connectors. There is some level converted digital inputs with plug connectors. Also, it can turn off VIN power to the shield (e.g. to save power) or disconnect the battery until the sun returns.
How do you plan to get data back?