Transistor switch

Hi, I'm trying to make a digital pin controlled switch to allow higher voltage/current power to flow, and I intend to use a 2N2222 transistor for this purpose, however the circuit I've constructed doesn't seem to be working. Rather than blinking on and off due to the transistor, the LED stays lit even with no transistor base current.

Could anyone have a look at the images to help me troubleshoot it?

Thanks so much, I'm very lost.

20191114_194021_compress78.jpg|4608x2128

OP’S image.

|500x230

The wires on the PCB should be soldered.

What is written on the transistor?

raschemmel: Transistor is backwards,

Damn, I knew it was something obvious like that haha, I think i was mixing up conventional current and real electron flow.

larryd: OP’S image.

|500x230

The wires on the PCB should be soldered.

What is written on the transistor?

Yes, I realise about the soldering however this was just a very quick prototyping exercise to figure out the layout and code, so I made do with just twisting the wire.

Anyway it is working perfectly now, thank you both very much.

You are not using the breadboard properly.

BTW

Transistor is backwards,

That was incorrect. (which is why I removed that post) I didn't look at the polarity on the pcb. The transistor is wired correctly. (ASSUMING YOU WERE CORRECT WHEN YOU SAID YOU WERE USING A 2N2222. DON'T REVERSE IT !

IF , ON THE OTHER HAND , YOU ARE USING A PN2222, THEN IT IS BACKWARDS ! THEN YOU DO NEED TO REVERSE IT !

Larry was right. You're wires aren't soldered

You are not using the breadboard properly.

For one thing, your shoving two pins in the SAME hole ! base and base resistor , collector and resistor , and led and resistor all sharing same hole with another pin. You are going to damage your breadboard.

(just when you thought you had seen everything on the forum...)

The reason there are multiple holes in one row is so you can place a SINGLE pin in each hole.

raschemmel: That was incorrect. (which is why I removed that post) I didn't look at the polarity on the pcb. The transistor is wired correctly. (ASSUMING YOU WERE CORRECT WHEN YOU SAID YOU WERE USING A 2N2222. DON'T REVERSE IT !

IF , ON THE OTHER HAND , YOU ARE USING A PN2222, THEN IT IS BACKWARDS ! THEN YOU DO NEED TO REVERSE IT !

Larry was right. You're wires aren't soldered

For one thing, your shoving two pins in the SAME hole ! base and base resistor , collector and resistor , and led and resistor all sharing same hole with another pin. You are going to damage your breadboard.

(just when you thought you had seen everything on the forum...)

The reason there are multiple holes in one row is so you can place a SINGLE pin in each hole.

I'm sorry, I'm new and I am trying to build a rudimentary AND gate, so I'm just trying to build up from basics.

I'm sorry, I'm new and I am trying to build a rudimentary AND gate, so I'm just trying to build up from basics.

The correct name is "Discrete transistor AND gate".

Here on the forum, we try to avoid using the word "rudimentary", as that is a concept we wish to avoid.

Ok, here's some basics for you.

Insert ONE AND ONLY ONE pin in EACH hole in the breadboard.

Is that basic enough for you ?

Transistor AND GATE

FYI, you can replace the 4.7k collector resistor with a 220 ohm resistor and a led so the led lights when the AND gate output is TRUE.

raschemmel: The correct name is "Discrete transistor AND gate".

Here on the forum, we try to avoid using the word "rudimentary", as that is a concept we wish to avoid.

Ok, here's some basics for you.

Insert ONE AND ONLY ONE pin in EACH hole in the breadboard.

Is that basic enough for you ?

Transistor AND GATE

FYI, you can replace the 4.7k collector resistor with a 220 ohm resistor and a led so the led lights when the AND gate output is TRUE.

Thank you, this is very much my first time using a microcontroller of any kind in a project, so I'm still learning. Thanks for clarifying on the terminology I should use.

Thank you, this is very much my first time using a microcontroller of any kind in a project, so I’m still learning. Thanks for clarifying on the terminology I should use.

FYI, the discrete transistor AND gate has been around since way before microcontrollers were invented.
Back in the day, it was called TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic), a name which was adopted for the
7400 series logic gates of the 60’s and 70’s.

8048 was introduced in 1976 and was the first of Intel’s microcontrollers.

In 1964, Texas Instruments introduced the first members of their ceramic package SN5400 series transistor–transistor logic (TTL) logic chips, later a low-cost plastic package SN7400 series was introduced in 1966 which quickly gained over 50% of the logic chip market, and eventually becoming de facto standardized electronic components.[

7400 series logic family