Trying to use usbtiny - avrdude: initialization failed, rc=-1

I recently purchased a usbasp and a usbtiny as well as some atmega328p-pu with arduino bootloader on ebay. I put the atmega328p-pu on a breadboard and connected it to the output of the usbtiny according to a diagram i found online. I was able to install the correct usb drivers using zadig. However, when I try to do anything using the avrdude software, I get the error "initialization failed, rc=-1". I tried using the usbasp and I got the same error. The only thing I could think of is that maybe the fuses were changed on the atmega328p-pu and that I might need to add a crystal to the breadboard. However, I do not currently have any crystals to use. How should I troubleshoot this problem? I will also order a atmega328p-pu without the bootloader to see if that works. I am still at the beginning stage, trying to get the avrdude software with the usbtiny hardware to access the atmega328p-pu chips so I can eventually program them with my own software.

The ATmega328P sold with the Arduino bootloader will need a crystal as they have their fuses set for it.