search for the name of the sensor and arduino.
see if there are scores of posts, tutorials and vidoes. if that is the case, you have a good fit.
if you get forum posts and they say, too slow, use a ......
or too little memory, use a .......
your answer is clear.
instead of the pronoun game, use the name of the sensor you want to use.
based on the general concept, moving lights around, either physically, or by controlling what lights in a light array, would seem to be a very slow application. much slower than how fast the parts would interface, calculate and control.
I think most would say to get the parts, try it out and evaluate the response.
chances are there are ways to speed up the control, but if needed, a faster chip could be obtained.
you might find that the Arduino is faster than a RPi cluster when doing these simple tasks. has to do with processing cycles more than speed of the chip.
the X/Y problem is a classical mistake first time users make.
choosing something because they have an idea, but the idea is not based on experience.
considering a PRi cluster to be superior when the whole project is unknown reinforced the likelihood of an X/Y Problem.
flesh out the problem logically, using parts numbers and not generic categories (MEMs sensors are a major source of sensors for Arduinos, I use many different ones, temperature and humidity, pressure, etc)
the more specific you get, the higher the quality of the answers.