Hello Arduino forums,

Currently working on my final year engineering project. The goal is creating an inverter circuit with grid frequency matching capabilities using a Phase Locked Loop (PLL).

The inverter circuit is up and running, ran perfectly with a 20V DC source. During the debug phase I wrote a script which used digitalWrite and delayMicroseconds to output a PWM sine signal. The delays were measured in matlab from a single phase inverter sample.

I’m now attempting to implement the pll control. I am running into trouble getting PWM generation code going with a set 60 Hz frequency. The math compares a sine wave to a triangle wave with a very small step size ( 1E-5) due to the carrier signal being at 3000Hz. I did not think this would be an issue but running the code with my circuit, it takes a whole second for the arduino to finish outputting one cycle.

```
const float pi = 3.14159265359;
float f,c,nf;
int A,B;
for (float i=0; i<=1/60; i=i+0.00001) { // @0.00001 - 1667 iterations
f = sin(60*2*pi*i); //60 hz sine wave function
nf = -1*sin(60*2*pi*i);
c = 2.8/pi * asin( sin(pi*i*6000) ); //carrier triangle wave function with frequency 3000
// switching logic
if (f > c) {
A = 1;
}
else {
A = 0;
}
}
If (nf >c ) {
B = 1;
}
Else {
B=0;
}
If (A-B ==1){
DigitalWrite(5, HIGH);
}
If (A-B == -1){
DigitalWrite(6,HIGH);
}
Else {
DigitalWrite(5,LOW);
DigitalWrite(6,LOW);
}
}
```

I did a bit of searching and saw that the digitalWrite function behaves slowly. I switched to port manipulation but it did not decrease signal output speed.

```
DDRD = B01100000; //SET PINS 6 and 5 to OUTPUT
//If sine > carrier
PORTD &= B01000000; //turn off pin 6
PORTD = B00100000; //turn on pin 5
//else
PORTD &= B00100000; //turn off pin5
PORTD = B01000000; //turn on pin 6
```

I’m a bit stumped now, if I cant get just the pwm generation going then if I included the pll code which has to read the analog pins and do a lot more math it may slow down the output signals even more. Is the arduino powerful enough to do what I described above?