I am a student having a school project that requires me to make a smart charger. Some hardware can control the output by turning the screw. What hardware should I use to control the output voltage/current without tunning manually???? It would be great if the explanation is clear and not complex.
I am sorry, your question is not clear and very complex. I recommend you research your project a little bit on google. You could start with:
What needs to be charged? There are many different technologies, sizes, parameters ...
What are the challenges for your technology?
How do charging circuits look like?
What is smart in case of your charger? Smart means everything and nothing.
This knowledge will allow you to ask some specific question which can be answered more easily. Otherwise it’s difficult to know what you need and where to start.
It will be better to be considered as a variable power supply. I would like to find is there any hardware that can control the output voltage/current by PID algorithm without changing by turning the screw.
Most microcontroller will be usable to control voltage and current with a PID algorithm. As I said, you need to do some more research. After all the word student comes from latin meaning busy oneself, desire and to strive.
Engineers spend many years designing chargers. So there must be some limiting parameters your teacher/professor gave you.
- Battery (Li-Ion, Ni-Cd, Li-Po ...), standard AA, Charging a electrical car ...
- Is the battery smart and protects itself against overcharging or overheating?
- Is your focus more on hardware or software? e.g. you need to design a PCB or can you use some modules and then write an PID algorithm to control everything. Or can you even just use a PID library somebody else has written and you just configure it for your use case?
- What is the power source?
I found a couple of things on google that will get you 90% of the way in 2 minutes. But which one depends on the questions above. Here is one very general for controling voltage and current using an Arduino, which is likely good enough for a demonstration. But be aware some batteries types are unforgiving. You might have heard of Li-on batteries exploding in peoples faces.