which sound sensor could be better to use in this case?

Hello there! I'm working on project that uses difference between several volumes(sound levels) on sound sensors to detect sound source. If I'm right, the standard arduino module does not measure volume but only detects sound in binary mode (0 - 1). Which module would you recommend for my case? Thanks.

If I’m right, the standard arduino module does not measure volume

correct

but only detects sound in binary mode (0 - 1).

wrong - the analogue input will give you numbers between 0 and 1023 depending on the input circuit you add.

Which module would you recommend for my case

You need a module that has an analogue output not just a digital one. Something like this:-SparkFun Electret Microphone Breakout - BOB-12758 - SparkFun Electronics