Absolutely, but it is VERY difficult to implement.
If you've checked the details and prices for the MarvelMind and Pozyx systems, which have been around for years now, you know that they are expensive, and yet have severe limitations.
They work in only one room, and (for example) the MarvelMind locator doesn't work unless at least two beacons have direct line of sight to the rover. So forget having furniture, or people moving around in the room.
It will probably be years before a cheap, reliable indoor positioning system comes out, and you can safely bet that proprietary technology will be involved.
I have to disagree. Although commercial robots are expensive DIY ones don't have to be and also don't have to be so constrained.
Over 35 years ago i had a neighbour that was a medical assistant, he was also a Commodore 64 nut. This computer was soooooo fast, 1MHz from memory with 64K of memory. With some interesting mods he turned it into a C256 by paging 3 extra banks or memory. All this with no formal electronics training.
He built a robot car that had U/S sensors, IR sensors, both used for distance measurement. He used small RF modules to communicate with a baud rate of 1200 I think.
The car could drive around the house, room to room and never hit an object. You could move furniture and at could avoid it. Part of the communication was mapping of its path, this was done by multiple speed sensors on its wheels. It could calculate the difference in speed of each wheel as it changed direction. After 3 or 4 laps around the house it would have an almost accurate map of the house.
When I saw what he had done I was totally dumb founded. It was beyond my comprehension and I was an electronics technician.
His other little project was a suspended ping pong ball. He coated it in iron filings and it would suspend in the contraption. It had an electromagnet at the top and U/S sensor at the bottom. If the ball got closer to the sensor it would increase the electromagnet current and suck the ball up again. 2 very amazing designs on the most basic (in todays terms) computer. Having said that the C64 was so way ahead of anything else available at the time for the home market.