Wx station questions, particularly how to use LM324

I am making a wx station.... to my dismay I found that tap water in a cup and my MM probes in just a little bit I got 10kOhm, so using an ESP32 1V ADC its 1V / 10k so 0.1. I want to read that as yes or no level...

The fx is

A cup with known opening diameter fills into a straw with known dia.

A pulsed 1V + signal is applied at pts 0, a, b, c - going up straw... abc corellate to volume of water - have to measure this! Across the straw are electrodes 0abc, everything is expoxied together, the straw is closed at pt 0. Servo will tilt the straw/cup assy to 110deg to dump it, then the rainfall[1] =+ highest level met volume. It is subtotatoled in 15min or so segments into a daily fifo array.

So I have LM324s, would I use [+1V] [//\ 10kOhm //\ ] = v1 and electrode = v2? I've not used LM324 before!

Other stuff:

Also if u have time, what would be best way to measure ammeter (wind speed)? I have designed a shaft and three horizontal arms with cups. The shaft has a perm magnet, the board next to it has a reed switch. Wind speed calc pulses / sec * w *, where w is calibration coef calced from p/s over local wx underground reported wind speed averaged over a day, sampled every minute or so. 

Wind direction. I plan to use a brush assy based on a tuft of fine gauge stranded wire rubbing shaft of vane, the vane has arm and 2nd brush to contact rounded points ran to Res 10,20,30, etc then voltage read at the merged point of these. Friction is a problem... The shaft is in eyelets with grease, sitting on a bearing made by punching a dimple into sheet steel, greased too. Alternate method is use another perm mag and hall sensors (which I don't have save for the one internal to ESP). It can be between pts, the direction is last recorded point. Error catching alerts when no point for n minutes, or erratic, or over/under v range. --- Would brush method work?

Freeze alert: This is similar to the rain gauge. A closed capsule of tap water on black paiinted bottom is exposed to sun/sky.... time from thaw to freeze will be measured, if cycle is close, an alert is sent (emailed / sms). 

Air Pressure: A barometric sensor (I have to obtain)...

Visibility: Laser and 135 deg oritented photodiode inside a black flat painted can with holes. PD picks up diffused/refracted laser at 135deg - probably thru lm324 to esp. Calibrated with Wx reported vis.

Temp/Hum: DHT22 in shade can

Sun sensor: 5 Photodiodes at -20,-10, 0, 10, 20 degreess to horizontal. Difference is sunniness factor. Max is sun intensity. 

Code ideas:

Common: ESP-NOW, OTA, NTP, Wifi

Outdoors:  ESP32: DHT lib, Air press lib

Inside module: ESP8266: Email, pushOver(optional), LCD, Beep (speaker)


Alerts via email (sendGrid) to SMS bridge - utilize floodControl()!
Includes: Record temp, big temp change, freeze alert, first freeze alert, windchill warn, heat adv, rapid baro change, really low pressure, wind advisory, gusty, flood alert... etc


Wx data written to text files to display in BlueIris camera overlays

A sensitive pressure transducer will measure the wind speed if it is pointed into it. You will need some type of mechanical setup to keep it pointed in the correct direction. Look at the windmills in your area for ideas.

gilshultz:
A sensitive pressure transducer will measure the wind speed if it is pointed into it. You will need some type of mechanical setup to keep it pointed in the correct direction. Look at the windmills in your area for ideas.

Thx man... I was a little overzealous at start... It was going into lawn directly north of apartment bldg. Duh! Won't get northerly winds ... If I can get on roof. ...