what does the int mean? I understand integer, but I still do not understand how it works with other things (syntax?) in the code.

The int is a datatype modifier for a variable. The Arduino does not know that 34 is a number unless you tell it that it is.

Variables are described according to this format in C/C++:

datatype variablename = value

If you want a number with the value 34, this results in:

int variable = 34;

Where int is the datatype variable is the variable name = is the assignment operator (it assigns the value to the right, into the variable on the left) 34 becomes the value of variable

You can read it as: The number called variable becomes equal to 34

It sets up something called a "variable". For example:

int x; int y; int z;

x = 3; y = 4; z = x + y; // this is saying z = 3 + 4 = 7

x = 5; // change the value of x z = x + y; // now z = 5 + 4 = 9

Hope that helps!