I am not sure how much current the led's are using, it cant be much thou there are only 16 rgb leds in the strip.
So what makes you think that it can't be "that much"?
An RGB LED is 3 LEDs in one. Normally an LED will take 20mA, so 16 RGB LEDs is the same as 48 LEDs and at 20mA that is a total of 0.96A.
A USB connector will provide a maximum of 0.5A so this load is too much for powering off a USB connector.
I guess what i am asking does the newer 1.8.5 windows store ide compile the sketch differently than the older 1.6.8?
It might do but not in any way that will explain your problem.
Load your sketch into the Arduino using your old computer. Then plug it into your new computer. Don't download any sketch it will run the one it has. It should work (or not work ) the same as if you uploaded the sketch from your new computer.