the ESP-12 you linked has the micrcorprocessor and the pins to do what you want.
however, it does not have all the supporting devices that the WEMOS D1 mini or pro-mini have
to use the ESP-12, and there is no reason you cannot use it, but you need to deliver a power supply for the board. 3.3v with enough for your project.
also , you need to program it. this can be done with an Arduino board that has the USB connection.
and I would suggest that your first programming is to make it OTA programmable. this allows you to upload programs wirelessly eliminating the need for a USB connection.
but your first post seemed to be asking if you can use an Arduino and an ESP board as an add-on board.
yes, you can do that too. you can use the ESP-12 and control it with an UNO or NANO or some such.
by the way, a WEMOS D1 MINI can cost less than the ESP-12 you linked.
if you are looking to save a few $$ the SD card might be optional. if you upload to the WEB, you might be able to retrieve your data from there until you find you must have it on your PC.
I have never looked to see if you can upload data over your home WiFi to a spreadsheet on your PC, but it seems possible.
Another way might be to store data in a file on the WEMOS and then retrieve that file.
Just thinking outside of the box here.
My main point is that if you have any ESP and any Arduino* and any temperature sensor, you should be able to get most of what you want right away.
I use the word ARDUINO as any micro-controller that is programmed with the Arduino IDE and able to easily share programs and libraries with a variety of other micro-contollers. most of us think of the UNO when we say Arduino, and have to name the board, mega. teensy, nodeMCU, etc, but in a broad sense, they are all "Arduino's"
As for temperature sensors, there are lots and lots of options.
some are digital, self contained measuring, then sending the readings back to your Arduino with serial information.
thinks like the DS18B20 and the BMx280 and the DHT.xx/AM2303 family are all digitally addressed.
usually, you use a library to reduce your program size.
there are also analog options.
Thermistors are temperature sensitive resistors, use one analog pin to read one temperature
LM34/35/ family (some F some C ) are analog and very sensitive
RTD's are simply some metals that are temperature sensitive, also use one analog port per device
You can use an op-amp and a diode, if you are so inclined. the PN junction is temperature sensitive.
much more work though.
Thermocouples are almost always used with a transmitter board. you can get them as analog sensors, or digital sensors. but Thermocouples are for very high temperatures. some can read just over 2,000 C.
but room temperature is not a good application. hard to resolve 1 degC, not good for fractions of a degree.