Check out LIDAR Lite v3, made by Garmin and offered at Garmin.com, or resellers such as Sparkfun.com and Robotshop.com for $149 USD.
Good to at least 40 meters with 1cm resolution.
100 meters? Resolution may drop, or it just may not work.
Product site, manual, Arduino library software on Github are here
Garmin LIDAR-Lite v3 | GPS Sensors
Page 9, looks like it has 2 bytes for High Range and Low Range in cm. I don’t know how that is interpreted, as 65535 cm = 655.35m = 2150 feet
"The LIDAR-Lite 3 Laser Rangefinder by Garmin is an essential, powerful, scalable and economical laser based measurement solution supporting a wide variety of applications (ex. drones, general robotics, industrial sensing and more). Measures distance, velocity and signal strength of cooperative and non cooperative targets at distances from zero to more than 40 meters. Offering the highest performance available in a single beam ranging sensor in its class.
The new LIDAR-Lite has all of the same specifications as the legacy sensor: Up to 40-meter range capability with 1cm resolution, small size, low power consumption and light weight. There have been a number of upgrades:
Signal Processing Improvements offer 5X Faster Measurement Speeds
•With the implementation of a new signal processing architecture, LIDAR-Lite will now operate at measurement speeds of up to 500 readings per second offering greater resolution for scanning applications."
If you could find a way to get a reading from a golf laser range finder, you could measure even farther, in tenths of yards, out to 650+ yards.
These are advertised numbers for some Leupold range finders (the brand I use - I forget which model).
Maximum Range – Reflective Target/Prism
800 y /731 m
700 y /640 m
650 y /594 m
I regularly use mine (almost daily when the weather is nice, I play on the way home after work) to confirm the flag is over 200 yards away, farther than I can hit with anything except a driver. Some flags have a reflective prism in them, you get a good reading on these from quite far out if you can hold the unit steady enough to pick out the flag.
There are plenty of other brands as well, Bushnell is a big one.
The other big thing in golf is GPS distance, with more general numbers like front, center, and back of green or to some obstacles, even units that will speak the distance for you.
Is the thing you are measuring to a known location? You could program that into a GPS and have the unit tell you how far you are from it.