There are MEMS accelerometers that can measure higher levels: https://www.adafruit.com/product/4627.
Suppose you have a rigid metal frame that drops onto a concrete floor from 10 meters and the sensor itself is directly attached to the frame. Then you need to measure a few hundred g.
Suppose you have lightweight object that falls only 50cm and the sensor is not attached to the frame but encapsulated in foam or rubber. Then you can't even get to 10 g. That will not be the g-force on the frame, but it will give an indication of the impact.
If the object has foam edges, then the impact force will drop even more.
If the object is a car and it always drops on its wheels and they have suspension, then I expect no more than a few g.
The I2C bus is slow, a sensor with analog output or with a SPI interface is better.
As far as I know, the impact force is in g-force. That is what a accelerometer measures.