RadioHead Library conflict

Hi all
I am working on a project to use Arduino heart rate pulse wirelessly
my issue is only when I add RadioHead library to the existed generic heart pulse code it is conflicting
to be precise it is conflicting with the interrupt section only
I read a bit on internet and I guess I have a Library conflict… but there is no other libraries in use

when I try upload the sketch only after adding RadioHead:

#include <RH_ASK.h>

it is saying the following message:

C:\Users\namee\AppData\Local\Temp\cc9lzNai.ltrans2.ltrans.o: In function `main’:

C:\Program Files (x86)\Arduino\hardware\arduino\avr\cores\arduino/main.cpp:43: undefined reference to `setup’

collect2.exe: error: ld returned 1 exit status

exit status 1
Error compiling for board Arduino Leonardo.

and this is the interrupt code bellow:

/*
>> Pulse Sensor Amped Leonardo 1.2 <<

This code is for Pulse Sensor Amped by Joel Murphy and Yury Gitman
    www.pulsesensor.com 

The following variables are automatically updated:
Signal :    int that holds the analog signal data straight from the sensor. updated every 2mS.
IBI  :      int that holds the time interval between beats. 2mS resolution.
BPM  :      int that holds the heart rate value, derived every beat, from averaging previous 10 IBI values.
QS  :       boolean that is made true whenever Pulse is found and BPM is updated. User must reset.
Pulse :     boolean that is true when a heartbeat is sensed then false in time with pin13 LED going out.


//wirless
#include <RH_ASK.h>
#include <SPI.h> // Not actually used but needed to compile
//RH_ASK driver(2000, 12, 14);

//  VARIABLES
int pulsePin = 0;                 // Pulse Sensor purple wire connected to analog pin 0
int blinkPin = 13;                // pin to blink led at each beat
int fadePin = 5;                  // pin to do fancy classy fading blink at each beat
int fadeRate = 0;                 // used to fade LED on with PWM on fadePin


// these variables are volatile because they are used during the interrupt service routine!
volatile int BPM;                   // used to hold the pulse rate
volatile int Signal;                // holds the incoming raw data
volatile int IBI = 600;             // holds the time between beats, must be seeded! 
volatile boolean Pulse = false;     // true when pulse wave is high, false when it's low
volatile boolean QS = false;        // becomes true when Arduoino finds a beat.


void setup(){
  pinMode(blinkPin,OUTPUT);         // pin that will blink to your heartbeat!
  pinMode(fadePin,OUTPUT);          // pin that will fade to your heartbeat!
  Serial.begin(115200);             // we agree to talk fast!
  while(!Serial);                   // this is necessary for Leonardo to find the serialport.
  delay(100);
  Serial.println("Pulse Sensor Amped - Leonardo");
  interruptSetup();                 // sets up to read Pulse Sensor signal every 2mS 
  Serial.println("done interrupt setup");
   // UN-COMMENT THE NEXT LINE IF YOU ARE POWERING The Pulse Sensor AT LOW VOLTAGE, 
   // AND APPLY THAT VOLTAGE TO THE A-REF PIN
//   analogReference(EXTERNAL);   
   
}



void loop(){
  //sendDataToProcessing('S', Signal);     // send Processing the raw Pulse Sensor data // nameer//desabled to get only the beats
  if (QS == true){                       // Quantified Self flag is true when arduino finds a heartbeat
        fadeRate = 255;                  // Set 'fadeRate' Variable to 255 to fade LED with pulse
        sendDataToProcessing('B',BPM);   // send heart rate with a 'B' prefix
        //sendDataToProcessing('Q',IBI);   // send time between beats with a 'Q' prefix //nmaeer// desabled to get the beats only
        QS = false;                      // reset the Quantified Self flag for next time    
     }
  
  ledFadeToBeat();
  
  delay(20);                             //  take a break
}


void ledFadeToBeat(){
    fadeRate -= 15;                         //  set LED fade value
    fadeRate = constrain(fadeRate,0,255);   //  keep LED fade value from going into negative numbers!
    analogWrite(fadePin,fadeRate);          //  fade LED
  }


void sendDataToProcessing(char symbol, int data ){
    Serial.print(symbol);                // symbol prefix tells Processing what type of data is coming
    Serial.print(data);                // the data to send culminating in a carriage return
    Serial.println("JJ");                // to check if python is ignoring letters after the digitis
  }

Did you type most of that in italic :slight_smile:

Please edit your post and add code tags so the forum software does not mangle your code.

Type
** **[code]** **
before your code
Type
** **[/code]** **
after your code

Now, to the question. You simply did not write a setup() function in your sketch; nothing to do with a library conflict. Maybe post your full code.

thanks for your answer and the instructions
I couldn’t put the whole code in the post.
I will put the second tap of the code below in this comment
I didn’t wrote the code it is free on internet and I am already using it in a project with Python and it works really well. but now I am adding a wireless option to my project
and when I add the library RadioHead as shown in the main it is not working
the part that conflict with this library is the interrupt code tap below:

volatile int rate[10];                    // array to hold last ten IBI values
volatile unsigned long sampleCounter = 0;          // used to determine pulse timing
volatile unsigned long lastBeatTime = 0;           // used to find IBI
volatile int P =512;                      // used to find peak in pulse wave, seeded
volatile int T = 512;                     // used to find trough in pulse wave, seeded
volatile int thresh = 525;                // used to find instant moment of heart beat, seeded
volatile int amp = 100;                   // used to hold amplitude of pulse waveform, seeded
volatile boolean firstBeat = true;        // used to seed rate array so we startup with reasonable BPM
volatile boolean secondBeat = false;      // used to seed rate array so we startup with reasonable BPM //nameer// was True in the old version


void interruptSetup(){     
  // Initializes Timer1 to throw an interrupt every 2mS.
  TCCR1A = 0x00;  // start timer in CTC mode
  TCCR1B = 0x0C;  // set TOP to OCR1A, set clock prescaler to 256
  OCR1A = 0x7C;   // timer will count to this number (0x7C = 124), then trigger reset
  TIMSK1 = 0x02;  // turn on the OCR1A match interrupt 
  sei();             // MAKE SURE GLOBAL INTERRUPTS ARE ENABLED        
} 


// THIS IS THE TIMER 1 INTERRUPT SERVICE ROUTINE. 
// Timer 1 makes sure that we take a reading every 2 miliseconds
ISR(TIMER1_COMPA_vect){                         // triggered when Timer1 counts to 124
  cli();                                      // disable interrupts while we do this
  Signal = analogRead(pulsePin);              // read the Pulse Sensor 
  sampleCounter += 2;                         // keep track of the time in mS with this variable
  int N = sampleCounter - lastBeatTime;       // monitor the time since the last beat to avoid noise

    //  find the peak and trough of the pulse wave
  if(Signal < thresh && N > (IBI/5)*3){       // avoid dichrotic noise by waiting 3/5 of last IBI
    if (Signal < T){                          // T is the trough
      T = Signal;                             // keep track of lowest point in pulse wave 
    }
  }

  if(Signal > thresh && Signal > P){          // thresh condition helps avoid noise
    P = Signal;                             // P is the peak
  }                                        // keep track of highest point in pulse wave

  //  NOW IT'S TIME TO LOOK FOR THE HEART BEAT
  // signal surges up in value every time there is a pulse
  if (N > 250){                                   // avoid high frequency noise
    if ( (Signal > thresh) && (Pulse == false) && (N > (IBI/5)*3) ){        
      Pulse = true;                               // set the Pulse flag when we think there is a pulse
      digitalWrite(blinkPin,HIGH);                // turn on pin 13 LED
      IBI = sampleCounter - lastBeatTime;         // measure time between beats in mS
      lastBeatTime = sampleCounter;               // keep track of time for next pulse

      if(secondBeat){                        // if this is the second beat, if secondBeat == TRUE
        secondBeat = false;                  // clear secondBeat flag      //nameer// was True in the old version
        for(int i=0; i<=9; i++){             // seed the running total to get a realisitic BPM at startup
          rate[i] = IBI;                      
        }
      }

      if(firstBeat){                         // if it's the first time we found a beat, if firstBeat == TRUE
        firstBeat = false;                   // clear firstBeat flag
        secondBeat = true;                   // set the second beat flag
        sei();                               // enable interrupts again
        return;                              // IBI value is unreliable so discard it
      }   


      // keep a running total of the last 10 IBI values
      word runningTotal = 0;                  // clear the runningTotal variable    

      for(int i=0; i<=8; i++){                // shift data in the rate array
        rate[i] = rate[i+1];                  // and drop the oldest IBI value 
        runningTotal += rate[i];              // add up the 9 oldest IBI values
      }

      rate[9] = IBI;                          // add the latest IBI to the rate array
      runningTotal += rate[9];                // add the latest IBI to runningTotal
      runningTotal /= 10;                     // average the last 10 IBI values 
      BPM = 60000/runningTotal;               // how many beats can fit into a minute? that's BPM!
      QS = true;                              // set Quantified Self flag 
      // QS FLAG IS NOT CLEARED INSIDE THIS ISR
    }                       
  }

  if (Signal < thresh && Pulse == true){   // when the values are going down, the beat is over
    digitalWrite(blinkPin,LOW);            // turn off pin 13 LED
    Pulse = false;                         // reset the Pulse flag so we can do it again
    amp = P - T;                           // get amplitude of the pulse wave
    thresh = amp/2 + T;                    // set thresh at 50% of the amplitude
    P = thresh;                            // reset these for next time
    T = thresh;
  }

  if (N > 2500){                           // if 2.5 seconds go by without a beat
    thresh = 512;                          // set thresh default
    P = 512;                               // set P default
    T = 512;                               // set T default
    lastBeatTime = sampleCounter;          // bring the lastBeatTime up to date        
    firstBeat = true;                      // set these to avoid noise
    secondBeat = false;                    // when we get the heartbeat back
  }
  
  sei();                                   // enable interrupts when youre done!
}// end isr

You're doing far too much processing in your ISR. It's probably preempting the RadioHead interrupt that services the timer, disrupting the encoding/decoding process. See if you can do a minimum of work, process a flag and then do the heavy lifting in the main program instead. Also check to see which timer RadioHead uses to prevent a timer conflict.

Written by someone that doesn't understand interrupts... there is no need to turn interrupts off and back on in an ISR, the hardware does that.

thanks for your answer
sorry.. not sure what is ISR.. do you suggest to process everything in the main code so it will less conflict?

namer:
thanks for your answer
sorry.. not sure what is ISR.. do you suggest to process everything in the main code so it will less conflict?

Yes, and you can find "isr" if you do a text search in the code.

Thanks for editing your post and adding the missing code. I combined it all and you indeed have a library conflict; the compiler output

C:\Users\sterretje\AppData\Local\Temp\build06540ac4e6fe8c2f6b383e024b4e904d.tmp\libraries\RadioHead\RH_ASK.cpp.o: In function `__vector_11':

C:\Users\sterretje\Documents\Arduino\libraries\RadioHead/RH_ASK.cpp:609: multiple definition of `__vector_11'

C:\Users\sterretje\AppData\Local\Temp\build06540ac4e6fe8c2f6b383e024b4e904d.tmp\sketch\sketch_sep23a.ino.cpp.o:C:\Users\sterretje\AppData\Local\Temp\arduino_06540ac4e6fe8c2f6b383e024b4e904d/sketch_sep23a.ino:111: first defined here

collect2.exe: error: ld returned 1 exit status

Both your code and the RH library use the TIMER1 COMPA interrupt (interrupt vector 11). You either need to change your sketch and make use of another timer or hack the RH library to use another timer (or maybe don't use an interrupt in your code as suggested).

I will post your complete code (excluding the comment block in the beginning) in the next reply; I hope I combined it correctly.

//wirless
#include <RH_ASK.h>
#include <SPI.h> // Not actually used but needed to compile
//RH_ASK driver(2000, 12, 14);

//  VARIABLES
int pulsePin = 0;                 // Pulse Sensor purple wire connected to analog pin 0
int blinkPin = 13;                // pin to blink led at each beat
int fadePin = 5;                  // pin to do fancy classy fading blink at each beat
int fadeRate = 0;                 // used to fade LED on with PWM on fadePin


// these variables are volatile because they are used during the interrupt service routine!
volatile int BPM;                   // used to hold the pulse rate
volatile int Signal;                // holds the incoming raw data
volatile int IBI = 600;             // holds the time between beats, must be seeded!
volatile boolean Pulse = false;     // true when pulse wave is high, false when it's low
volatile boolean QS = false;        // becomes true when Arduoino finds a beat.


void setup()
{
  pinMode(blinkPin, OUTPUT);        // pin that will blink to your heartbeat!
  pinMode(fadePin, OUTPUT);         // pin that will fade to your heartbeat!
  Serial.begin(115200);             // we agree to talk fast!
  while (!Serial);                  // this is necessary for Leonardo to find the serialport.
  delay(100);
  Serial.println("Pulse Sensor Amped - Leonardo");
  interruptSetup();                 // sets up to read Pulse Sensor signal every 2mS
  Serial.println("done interrupt setup");
  // UN-COMMENT THE NEXT LINE IF YOU ARE POWERING The Pulse Sensor AT LOW VOLTAGE,
  // AND APPLY THAT VOLTAGE TO THE A-REF PIN
  //   analogReference(EXTERNAL);

}

void loop()
{
  //sendDataToProcessing('S', Signal);     // send Processing the raw Pulse Sensor data // nameer//desabled to get only the beats
  if (QS == true)                        // Quantified Self flag is true when arduino finds a heartbeat
  {
    fadeRate = 255;                  // Set 'fadeRate' Variable to 255 to fade LED with pulse
    sendDataToProcessing('B', BPM);  // send heart rate with a 'B' prefix
    //sendDataToProcessing('Q',IBI);   // send time between beats with a 'Q' prefix //nmaeer// desabled to get the beats only
    QS = false;                      // reset the Quantified Self flag for next time
  }

  ledFadeToBeat();

  delay(20);                             //  take a break
}


void ledFadeToBeat()
{
  fadeRate -= 15;                         //  set LED fade value
  fadeRate = constrain(fadeRate, 0, 255); //  keep LED fade value from going into negative numbers!
  analogWrite(fadePin, fadeRate);         //  fade LED
}


void sendDataToProcessing(char symbol, int data )
{
  Serial.print(symbol);                // symbol prefix tells Processing what type of data is coming
  Serial.print(data);                // the data to send culminating in a carriage return
  Serial.println("JJ");                // to check if python is ignoring letters after the digitis
}


volatile int rate[10];                    // array to hold last ten IBI values
volatile unsigned long sampleCounter = 0;          // used to determine pulse timing
volatile unsigned long lastBeatTime = 0;           // used to find IBI
volatile int P = 512;                     // used to find peak in pulse wave, seeded
volatile int T = 512;                     // used to find trough in pulse wave, seeded
volatile int thresh = 525;                // used to find instant moment of heart beat, seeded
volatile int amp = 100;                   // used to hold amplitude of pulse waveform, seeded
volatile boolean firstBeat = true;        // used to seed rate array so we startup with reasonable BPM
volatile boolean secondBeat = false;      // used to seed rate array so we startup with reasonable BPM //nameer// was True in the old version


void interruptSetup()
{
  // Initializes Timer1 to throw an interrupt every 2mS.
  TCCR1A = 0x00;  // start timer in CTC mode
  TCCR1B = 0x0C;  // set TOP to OCR1A, set clock prescaler to 256
  OCR1A = 0x7C;   // timer will count to this number (0x7C = 124), then trigger reset
  TIMSK1 = 0x02;  // turn on the OCR1A match interrupt
  sei();             // MAKE SURE GLOBAL INTERRUPTS ARE ENABLED
}


// THIS IS THE TIMER 1 INTERRUPT SERVICE ROUTINE.
// Timer 1 makes sure that we take a reading every 2 miliseconds
ISR(TIMER1_COMPA_vect)                          // triggered when Timer1 counts to 124
{
  cli();                                      // disable interrupts while we do this
  Signal = analogRead(pulsePin);              // read the Pulse Sensor
  sampleCounter += 2;                         // keep track of the time in mS with this variable
  int N = sampleCounter - lastBeatTime;       // monitor the time since the last beat to avoid noise

  //  find the peak and trough of the pulse wave
  if (Signal < thresh && N > (IBI / 5) * 3)   // avoid dichrotic noise by waiting 3/5 of last IBI
  {
    if (Signal < T)                           // T is the trough
    {
      T = Signal;                             // keep track of lowest point in pulse wave
    }
  }

  if (Signal > thresh && Signal > P)          // thresh condition helps avoid noise
  {
    P = Signal;                             // P is the peak
  }                                        // keep track of highest point in pulse wave

  //  NOW IT'S TIME TO LOOK FOR THE HEART BEAT
  // signal surges up in value every time there is a pulse
  if (N > 250)                                    // avoid high frequency noise
  {
    if ( (Signal > thresh) && (Pulse == false) && (N > (IBI / 5) * 3) )
    {
      Pulse = true;                               // set the Pulse flag when we think there is a pulse
      digitalWrite(blinkPin, HIGH);               // turn on pin 13 LED
      IBI = sampleCounter - lastBeatTime;         // measure time between beats in mS
      lastBeatTime = sampleCounter;               // keep track of time for next pulse

      if (secondBeat)                        // if this is the second beat, if secondBeat == TRUE
      {
        secondBeat = false;                  // clear secondBeat flag      //nameer// was True in the old version
        for (int i = 0; i <= 9; i++)         // seed the running total to get a realisitic BPM at startup
        {
          rate[i] = IBI;
        }
      }

      if (firstBeat)                         // if it's the first time we found a beat, if firstBeat == TRUE
      {
        firstBeat = false;                   // clear firstBeat flag
        secondBeat = true;                   // set the second beat flag
        sei();                               // enable interrupts again
        return;                              // IBI value is unreliable so discard it
      }


      // keep a running total of the last 10 IBI values
      word runningTotal = 0;                  // clear the runningTotal variable

      for (int i = 0; i <= 8; i++)            // shift data in the rate array
      {
        rate[i] = rate[i + 1];                // and drop the oldest IBI value
        runningTotal += rate[i];              // add up the 9 oldest IBI values
      }

      rate[9] = IBI;                          // add the latest IBI to the rate array
      runningTotal += rate[9];                // add the latest IBI to runningTotal
      runningTotal /= 10;                     // average the last 10 IBI values
      BPM = 60000 / runningTotal;             // how many beats can fit into a minute? that's BPM!
      QS = true;                              // set Quantified Self flag
      // QS FLAG IS NOT CLEARED INSIDE THIS ISR
    }
  }

  if (Signal < thresh && Pulse == true)    // when the values are going down, the beat is over
  {
    digitalWrite(blinkPin, LOW);           // turn off pin 13 LED
    Pulse = false;                         // reset the Pulse flag so we can do it again
    amp = P - T;                           // get amplitude of the pulse wave
    thresh = amp / 2 + T;                  // set thresh at 50% of the amplitude
    P = thresh;                            // reset these for next time
    T = thresh;
  }

  if (N > 2500)                            // if 2.5 seconds go by without a beat
  {
    thresh = 512;                          // set thresh default
    P = 512;                               // set P default
    T = 512;                               // set T default
    lastBeatTime = sampleCounter;          // bring the lastBeatTime up to date
    firstBeat = true;                      // set these to avoid noise
    secondBeat = false;                    // when we get the heartbeat back
  }

  sei();                                   // enable interrupts when youre done!
}// end isr

You don't need to hack RadioHead to change timers. It provides a built in #define that you can use to switch to a different timer.

aarg:
You don't need to hack RadioHead to change timers. It provides a built in #define that you can use to switch to a different timer.

Digging through a library to find out how to change something and applying that change to suite your needs is in my vocabulary hacking; regardless of how easy it is.

But I'm glad that the developers included a simple way to change it; and I see that it's even documented in the RH_ASK.h and RH_ASK.cpp files :slight_smile:

thank you very much guys for ll of the efforts you did..
it is more clear for me now
my background is Visual Art so you can imagine the situation here
thank you sterretje for editing the code and make it simpler ... will definitely try it.
many thanks to you too aarg ,, will try to figure out where and how to use #define to change the library timer. please if you got any example or can explain it more I will be very grateful.
thank you all guys

Where did you get the RadioHead library from? I see there are multiple versions available from various sources and I want to be sure that specific instructions for changing timers will be for the version you're using.

Please post the link to where you downloaded the library from (use chain links icon on the toolbar to make the link clickable) or if you used Library Manager then say so.

thanks for reply pert this is my sourse :

I found only one instructions on internet to switch to timer 5 and I tried it ... because it is not very clear for me so I tried several changes and no of them are working completely fine it is making changes but it keeps freeze the arduous board ... not sure at all.

this is the only instructions I found:

regards

/// The RH_ASK driver uses a timer-driven interrupt to generate 8 interrupts per bit period. RH_ASK
/// takes over a timer on Arduino-like platforms. By default it takes over Timer 1. You can force it
/// to use Timer 2 instead by enabling the define RH_ASK_ARDUINO_USE_TIMER2 near the top of RH_ASK.cpp

  • Undo any previous changes you have made to the library or re-install the library
  • File > Examples > RadioHead > ask > ask_receiver
  • Sketch > Show sketch folder - this will open the example sketch folder, which is in the RadioHead library folder
  • Navigate up 3 folder levels to the root of the RadioHead library folder
  • Open RH_ASK.cpp in a text editor.
  • Change line 26 from:
//#define RH_ASK_ARDUINO_USE_TIMER2

to

#define RH_ASK_ARDUINO_USE_TIMER2
  • Save the file

The library will now use timer 2 instead of timer 1.