... I really need to take a class on small electronics or something.
I see that you have highlighted "diagonal pins" in CrossRoads post. Those small 'tactile' buttons have four terminals. They are in pairs - two of them go to one side of the switch, and two go to the other side. when you push the button all four are connected. By attaching to diagonals, you are assured that you are actually bridging one side to the other (if you pick adjacent pins, you have a 50% probability of getting it right.)
As for a class, look around your town/city for a 'public access' class (or series of classes) on basic Arduino. But the very best education for a hobbyist is to hang around here and read (and re-read) posts by some of the heavies, like CrossRoads, sterretje, dave-in-nj, el supremo and LarryD - among others. Folks (like me) with less posts and less karma are also good to read, but the gold of this site is the preponderance of many 'eager-to-help' gurus. I learn something new every time I visit arduino.cc.