oh - i think there is a little misunderstanding - the tutorial i mentioned discribed this, i only didn't know, that these pins are the isp pins.
my board is connected to the arduino like in this picture
and i also uploadet the "arduinoISP" sketch to the uno, also switched the IDE to the board i want to burn the bootloader to (Arduino Diecimila or Duemilanove w/ATmega168P) and the bootloader burning process starts, but the RX/TX lights of my arduino uno stoped blinking after ~15 sec, the burning process fails and i got the error messages i posted above.
I had a VERY similar problem getting started with arduino last month putting the boot loader on a few ATMEGA328PU's. I found you need to change the expected ID of the chip and then pulled out my hair trying to debug the circuit. It looks like you are trying to use the Arduino as ISP to burn the boot loader... I can't find it again, but I found one credible article on the internet saying you couldn't use the Uno (Just Older versions maybe?) as a ISP.
I resisted for a day and a half but in the end ended up making a parallel programmer really quickly and simply using the Uno as a glorified socket for the new atmega I am burning the bootloader to and plugging the parallel programmer into the ICSP header opposite the board from the power and USB plug.
One thing to remember, or so I'm told, is that you must be powered externally when burning the bootloader with the parallel programming method.
I hope this helps.