I'll describe my system, which I put into place in my workshop earlier this year. Note that this solution is anything but inexpensive; I think I spent around $400.00 USD for the storage solution alone.
First off, for large items (computer cases, and other large storage), I purchased a few "gorilla racks". These are the large, multi-shelf metal racks with MDF shelving that can hold 2-300 pounds per shelf. My old shelving solution wasn't cutting it at all, and I needed a lot of storage. I fitted the shelves in place so that the bottom shelf was high enough for my PC cases/computers to fit under, or any large items.
I then purchased many rubbermaid-style tote containers in 3 "standard" sizes (a "large size", a "medium" size, and a "small size"). For my purposes, my "large" size was a 27 quart lidded container, my medium was a 15 quart lidded container, and my small was a 7 quart lidded container (about the size of shoebox). All were "clear", all are stackable, and the lids have secure fastening mechanisms. I also have a few large "tubs" (18 gallon or so) on the bottom as well.
In the larger tubs, I have things like motherboards and other larger bulky items. In the 27 quart containers, I put in things like cables, smaller peripheral cards, and the like. In the 15 quart containers, I put things like joypads and mice, floppy and hard drives, etc. In the smallest containers go things like fans and heatsinks, stuff of that nature.
This is key: Purchase as many as you can of the sizes all at once; run the store out, if you have the room and need. The issue is this: When it comes to "storage solutions" by retailers, like everything else, there is a "fashion of the year" look to it all. What you buy this year won't be the same as next year; you want a unified look, and a unified storage solution, so that means buying it all in one shot in most cases.
Another thing to consider: Purchase a good label maker (like a ptouch), and label everything. Even though the storage boxes may be clear, things can get a bit obscure when looking at a bunch of boxes, so labeling can help avoid the confusion (I don't have all of my stuff labeled yet; I work on it as time permits).
Over my workbench, I purchased and installed a dual-track shelving standard system, mounting the rails to the studs for maximum weight holding capacity. I installed a few shelves, and on many of them I stack a bunch of the 7-quart containers; some hold things like small gearmotors, junk stuff to be taken apart, parts for construction (I have one box with plastic stuff, another with wood bits, etc), one with prototyping stuff (PCBs and the like), etc.
Finally, I have on my workbench (and above it) my electronic component drawers. I also have drawers for things like nuts, bolts, screws, springs, etc. These were a bunch of multi-drawer cabinets from a company called Stack-On:
I purchased them on Amazon (you might have better luck than I did finding them locally - I couldn't find the multi-small drawer versions like I needed for electronic component). Note that you will -need- to purchase extra dividers separately - get a bunch; double your first guess at the number you think you will need (trust me on this).
I personally like the 60 bin and 30 bin cabinets for electronic components. The key with these cabinets is, once again, to precisely label the drawers, so you can find what you are looking for inside. For electronic components, if you can dedicate a cabinet to a component grouping type (ICs, resistors, capacitors, semi-conductors, etc), or group like components together (LEDs, diodes, small transistors in one; resistors, capacitor and inductors in another; switches, potentiometers, buttons, relays in a third, etc) - it can work really well.
A note on the dividers in these cabinets (and in similar cabinets, I would suppose): Use a piece of cellophane tape to secure the divider to the bottom of the drawer - when the drawers get full, parts like to sneak underneath the dividers, and it can make a mess of things. The tape will prevent this from happening.
Be clear on your labeling: If you know the component part numbers, put them on the front, and keep spec-sheets handy elsewhere (I store PDFs and other useful files on a fileserver in my shop that I can access from any computer on my home network - including a computer on my workbench).
Finally, regarding your resistor solution - it isn't so much a solution as a "hack"; you really should invest in a proper set of resistors for prototyping. Its what I ended up doing after giving thought to what I needed. I ended up buying 100 pieces (or so) of each value, which wasn't cheap, but I knew I wouldn't run out quickly. For your purposes, consider buying 20-25 pieces of each.
What I purchased and set up for my resistor assortment, is called an EIA E24 decade series:
Ideally you would go for an E48 or higher series, but it can take a ton of room to do so if you want more than a few pieces for each part (plus the higher tolerance value means the resistors can be more expensive). the E24 series is a good compromise. It also fits well with 1/4 watt 5% tolerance carbon-film resistors, which are pretty standard and easily found components. I purchased all of mine from these two vendors:
You can also find resistor assortments on Ebay from Chinese-based vendors; one thing to be careful of, though: Some vendors sell something that is similar to an E12 or E24 series, but with 2% tolerance parts. This is bad mainly because the 2% parts don't cover the gaps left by an E12 or E24 series, so you end up "missing" values in the series which can be a pain. If however, you find a vendor selling an E48 series with 2% parts (and there aren't more than, say, 25 piece per value) cheaply, you consider purchasing it...
Once you get the parts, make sure to verify that they are all what you purchased (keep track when you order), then sort them and organize them into the pre-labeled drawers. Remove the resistors from and tape leads or other packaging as well. It will be tedious, it will be slow, it may take a couple of days to complete. It will be worth it, though, in the end.
Good luck - hope this helps...