how arduino nano, uno or mega can wirelessly transfer data to a web server

I want to start few project starting from temperature monitor, soil moisture, uv detection and rain detection.

and since for the above I would have to plant my arunio board outside my house I wan to know

how arduino nano, uno or mega can wirelessly transfer data to a computer running web server where I can see the update.

I do not want to use an ether net sheild so wifi seems good idea. but I do not have any direction how to go about these sensor attached to nano or uno transferring data over network !

You might consider Bluetooth instead. It is simple, cheap, and I suspect easiest to apply at the PC end.

Another option is a WiFi repeater fed from an ethernet shield.

You could look at esp8266 based boards. My personal favourite is the Wemos d1 mini. Here is how I made my remote sensors and weather station.

Indoor sensors
Weather Station

IMG_20160612_133540.jpg

PaulRB: You could look at esp8266 based boards. My personal favourite is the Wemos d1 mini. Here is how I made my remote sensors and weather station.

Did you go to your WiFi router or to another means to get to a web server ?

nice and simple BTW.

how long do you get out of the batteries ?

dave-in-nj: Did you go to your WiFi router or to another means to get to a web server ?

nice and simple BTW.

how long do you get out of the batteries ?

Yes, the Wemos/esp connects to my router. The li-ion battery lasts around 3 weeks. As you can see, they are quite small 10440 size (same as AAA) and have only around 350mAh capacity. If you had space for a larger 18650 size battery with 2400mAh capacity, you would get 10-12 weeks at least. The esp spends only 5-10s connected to WiFi, then goes into deep sleep for 15mins.