This camera? http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=8667
From the SparkFun website:
The nice thing is that we have a complete datasheet on this camera along with a good supplier
Well, I can't deny that Toshiba is a good supplier (I'm typing this on a splendid Toshiba laptop), but I would dispute that the datasheet from Sparkfun is "complete".
I still think if you could read out data from the camera at a rate driven by the AVR, simple pixel based "processing" is feasible, but I'm not convinced that is the camera for the job.
Certainly, the datasheet doesn't give a complete picture of how to drive the camera - I hope there are better sheets available.
However, there a massive "but".
Unless the OP is capable of using an oscilloscope, and is willing to put in a lot of time and put up with a lot of disappointment, this is going nowhere, unless someone can sit down with them 1:1.
This isn't a remote collaborative task.
I have to say from the questions asked by the OP, this task is beyond him/her.