Distance recognition

So, i'm making an autonomous vehicle that has to stop at some known distance and then move again and so on.
Is there a sensor that is able to measure the distance my vehicle moves?
I will be using arduino uno r3

Wheel encoders.

Wheel encoders.

Can you elaborate more on how this sensor works!
Is it easy to program?

Google "arduino wheel encoders" for lots of information. Here is one example.