Distance recognition

So, i'm making an autonomous vehicle that has to stop at some known distance and then move again and so on.
Is there a sensor that is able to measure the distance my vehicle moves?
I will be using arduino uno r3

Wheel encoders.

jremington:
Wheel encoders.

Can you elaborate more on how this sensor works!
Is it easy to program?
Thanks

Google "arduino wheel encoders" for lots of information. Here is one example.