when we say "Arduino" we usually refer to the current UNO model with 6 analog pins.
the NANO offers access to all 8 analog pins, so you can get 2 more pins with that device.
the Pro Micro use the 32U4 chip and is the same as the Leonardo and offers quite a few differences.'
the Pro Mini uses the 328 and functionally the same as the UNO and NANO chip.
the ESP8266 in WemosD1 or NodeMCU offer 9 digital pins with access to TX and RX to make 11
There is only one ADC input and it is only 1V full scale, but depending on the board, you have choices. the NodeMCU has 3 pins available for the one ADC. One set of pins puts your analog value into a voltage divider, the other requires you scale it externally.
development is about the same on any of the devices. This is why so many of us use the ESP8266 as a single board for our projects.
and as with any of these boards, you can add either a bi-directional port expander or shift registers, or even multi-channel ADC chips.
on the horizon is the ESP32 with (I think) 3 dedicated Analog inputs (pins 34 to 39). and all the other pins available as either analog in, but also outputs. (similar to how the UNO handles the AI pins.
that chip offers some benefits, like many more pins and all can do Analog in, but it has some peculiarities in that while all pins have hardware functions, any pin can be re-directed through a MUX circuit.
While all of the ESP chips, in all varieties and all packages, CAN be controlled and used with an Arduino UNO, we suggest that you evaluate if the ESP does not offer faster and more functions than the UNO.
I think that as soon as you start using a Wemos D1, you find that the amount of stuff you can do becomes more than you expected.
as a note, the nodeMCU and Wemos both offer the same number of usable pins. The nodeMCU breaks out some that you cannot use because they are dedicated to the memory chip.
to use an ESP8266 use more pins, check out this video : more pins
I trust that I did not make too many mistakes in this post.