Which Arduino Board do I need?

Hello! I'm starting to use Arduino, I come from PIC microcontrollers and Raspberry PI.

I'm interested in to build a drum machine with arduino, basically read samples (wav files) from an SD card and reproduce them using Arduino to control the long for each reproduction and the time between them. I need at least 16bits 44,1 khz reproduction.

My question is related to which Arduino board (and uController) should I use? Do you think that this can be done with Arduino Uno?

Thank you!

I would not suggest an Arduino but the fully Arduino compatible Teensy 3.1 in conjunction with the Audioshiedl and the awesome Audio Library

Teensy 3.1 Teensy USB Development Board
Audio Adaptor PJRC Store

You can do it with a '328P based board with the addition of a 16-bit DAC.
Do some reading in this thread, fat16lib wrote some nice code to do that.
'328P can handle playback of 1 sound at a time - my plan is to eventually build a set of cards, one card for each drum.
Eventually I'll come up with a trigger input section and DAC output to add to this card. Have some nice ADCs, opamps, DAC, little bitty chips on DIP adapters - just need some free time to finish up.

Do you think that this can be done with Arduino Uno?

No. Arduino has no audio out, no SD card reader and probably not enough processing power to do the job (you'd have to be a programming GURU to pull it off).

For something like that I'd use a Raspberry Pi. It has a sound output, built-in SD card, and CPU power in excess.

I'd go for teensy 3.1.